Temperature is one of the most relevant physical quantities that affects almost all processes in nature. However, the realization of accurate temperature standards using current temperature references, like the triple point of water, is difficult due to the requirements on material purity and stability of the environment. In addition, in harsh environments, current temperature sensors with electrical readout, like platinum resistors, are difficult to implement, urging the development of optical temperature sensors. In 2018, the European consortium Photoquant, consisting of metrological institutes and academic partners, started investigating new temperature standards for self-calibrated, embedded optomechanical sensor applications, as well as optimised high resolution and high reliability photonic sensors, to measure temperature at the nano and meso-scales and as a possible replacement for the standard platinum resistant thermometers. This article presents an overview of the results obtained with sensor prototypes that exploit photonic and optomechanical techniques for sensing temperatures over a large temperature range (5 K to 300 K). Different concepts are demonstrated, including ring resonators, ladder-like resonators and suspended membrane optomechanical thermometers, highlighting initial performance and challenges, like self-heating that need to be overcome to realize photonic and optomechanical thermometry applications.
|Publication status||Published - 29 Apr 2022|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- temperature sensors
- photonic integrated circuit