The physical properties and sensory attributes of phosphate-free frankfurters were examined using response surface methodology by varying the amounts of five compositional variables: salt, modified tapioca starch-, sodium citrate (NaC)- and wheat bran and fat in the batter. Altogether, 20 different types of frankfurters were prepared. When the frankfurters were made without phosphate, additional non-meat ingredients were needed at salt contents of less than 1.5%. Modified tapioca starch and sodium citrate decreased frying loss, with the former also improving water and fat binding.
- Low salt
- Response surface methodology