Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

H. Kuuluvainen, P. Karjalainen, Cyril Bajamundi, J. Maunula, Pasi Vainikka, J. Roppo, J. Keskinen, T. Rönkkö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increased use of biomass and waste fuels, and the consequent corrosion problem have led to an increased need to study and monitor the combustion processes. This study presents an extensive physical characterization of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with different fuel mixtures and optional ferric sulfate feeding. The fuel mixtures included bark, sludge, peat and solid recovered fuel. Previously, the characterization of the particles analyzed from a fluidized bed reactor has mainly focused on chemical off-line analysis of collected impactor samples, large coarse mode particles or laboratory-scale reactors. In this study, the focus is in the particle size range from 3 to 500 nm, where mobility size distributions, effective density, morphology and electric net charge of particles were measured and analyzed. In the boiler, the particle size distribution in the measurement range was unimodal. Gas phase species formed a second smaller particle mode in the dilution. The number concentration of the smaller mode, peaking around 20 nm, was mostly dominating but variations were seen with respect to measurement location, fuel mixture and additive feeding. The effective density of these particles was approximately 1.4 g/cm3. The larger mode, peaking around 80 nm, was found to be more stable and the effective density of these particles decreased as a function of particle size, being 3-4 g/cm3at the maximum. The results of this work suggest that the cores of these particles already exist in the boiler and partly consist of heavier lead and zinc compounds. The ferric sulfate feeding decreased the number and mass concentration of the smaller mode particles, which are formed in the sampling and dilution processes mainly from the gas phase alkali chlorides. These condensable species were also linked to the negative net charge of particles. This study deepens the understanding of the combustion process and the sampling of aerosol particles with an aspect of on-line monitoring
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144 - 153
JournalFuel
Volume139
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Aerosols
Fluidized beds
Particles (particulate matter)
Boilers
Physical properties
Dilution
Zinc Compounds
Gases
Zinc compounds
Particle size
Sampling
Lead compounds
Peat
Alkalies
Particle size analysis
Chlorides
Biomass
Corrosion
Monitoring
Sulfates

Keywords

  • aerosol
  • fluidized bed boiler
  • nanoparticles
  • real time measurement

Cite this

Kuuluvainen, H., Karjalainen, P., Bajamundi, C., Maunula, J., Vainikka, P., Roppo, J., ... Rönkkö, T. (2015). Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler. Fuel, 139, 144 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.048
Kuuluvainen, H. ; Karjalainen, P. ; Bajamundi, Cyril ; Maunula, J. ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Roppo, J. ; Keskinen, J. ; Rönkkö, T. / Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler. In: Fuel. 2015 ; Vol. 139. pp. 144 - 153.
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abstract = "Increased use of biomass and waste fuels, and the consequent corrosion problem have led to an increased need to study and monitor the combustion processes. This study presents an extensive physical characterization of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with different fuel mixtures and optional ferric sulfate feeding. The fuel mixtures included bark, sludge, peat and solid recovered fuel. Previously, the characterization of the particles analyzed from a fluidized bed reactor has mainly focused on chemical off-line analysis of collected impactor samples, large coarse mode particles or laboratory-scale reactors. In this study, the focus is in the particle size range from 3 to 500 nm, where mobility size distributions, effective density, morphology and electric net charge of particles were measured and analyzed. In the boiler, the particle size distribution in the measurement range was unimodal. Gas phase species formed a second smaller particle mode in the dilution. The number concentration of the smaller mode, peaking around 20 nm, was mostly dominating but variations were seen with respect to measurement location, fuel mixture and additive feeding. The effective density of these particles was approximately 1.4 g/cm3. The larger mode, peaking around 80 nm, was found to be more stable and the effective density of these particles decreased as a function of particle size, being 3-4 g/cm3at the maximum. The results of this work suggest that the cores of these particles already exist in the boiler and partly consist of heavier lead and zinc compounds. The ferric sulfate feeding decreased the number and mass concentration of the smaller mode particles, which are formed in the sampling and dilution processes mainly from the gas phase alkali chlorides. These condensable species were also linked to the negative net charge of particles. This study deepens the understanding of the combustion process and the sampling of aerosol particles with an aspect of on-line monitoring",
keywords = "aerosol, fluidized bed boiler, nanoparticles, real time measurement",
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Kuuluvainen, H, Karjalainen, P, Bajamundi, C, Maunula, J, Vainikka, P, Roppo, J, Keskinen, J & Rönkkö, T 2015, 'Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler', Fuel, vol. 139, pp. 144 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.048

Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler. / Kuuluvainen, H.; Karjalainen, P.; Bajamundi, Cyril; Maunula, J.; Vainikka, Pasi; Roppo, J.; Keskinen, J.; Rönkkö, T.

In: Fuel, Vol. 139, 2015, p. 144 - 153.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

AU - Kuuluvainen, H.

AU - Karjalainen, P.

AU - Bajamundi, Cyril

AU - Maunula, J.

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Roppo, J.

AU - Keskinen, J.

AU - Rönkkö, T.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Increased use of biomass and waste fuels, and the consequent corrosion problem have led to an increased need to study and monitor the combustion processes. This study presents an extensive physical characterization of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with different fuel mixtures and optional ferric sulfate feeding. The fuel mixtures included bark, sludge, peat and solid recovered fuel. Previously, the characterization of the particles analyzed from a fluidized bed reactor has mainly focused on chemical off-line analysis of collected impactor samples, large coarse mode particles or laboratory-scale reactors. In this study, the focus is in the particle size range from 3 to 500 nm, where mobility size distributions, effective density, morphology and electric net charge of particles were measured and analyzed. In the boiler, the particle size distribution in the measurement range was unimodal. Gas phase species formed a second smaller particle mode in the dilution. The number concentration of the smaller mode, peaking around 20 nm, was mostly dominating but variations were seen with respect to measurement location, fuel mixture and additive feeding. The effective density of these particles was approximately 1.4 g/cm3. The larger mode, peaking around 80 nm, was found to be more stable and the effective density of these particles decreased as a function of particle size, being 3-4 g/cm3at the maximum. The results of this work suggest that the cores of these particles already exist in the boiler and partly consist of heavier lead and zinc compounds. The ferric sulfate feeding decreased the number and mass concentration of the smaller mode particles, which are formed in the sampling and dilution processes mainly from the gas phase alkali chlorides. These condensable species were also linked to the negative net charge of particles. This study deepens the understanding of the combustion process and the sampling of aerosol particles with an aspect of on-line monitoring

AB - Increased use of biomass and waste fuels, and the consequent corrosion problem have led to an increased need to study and monitor the combustion processes. This study presents an extensive physical characterization of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with different fuel mixtures and optional ferric sulfate feeding. The fuel mixtures included bark, sludge, peat and solid recovered fuel. Previously, the characterization of the particles analyzed from a fluidized bed reactor has mainly focused on chemical off-line analysis of collected impactor samples, large coarse mode particles or laboratory-scale reactors. In this study, the focus is in the particle size range from 3 to 500 nm, where mobility size distributions, effective density, morphology and electric net charge of particles were measured and analyzed. In the boiler, the particle size distribution in the measurement range was unimodal. Gas phase species formed a second smaller particle mode in the dilution. The number concentration of the smaller mode, peaking around 20 nm, was mostly dominating but variations were seen with respect to measurement location, fuel mixture and additive feeding. The effective density of these particles was approximately 1.4 g/cm3. The larger mode, peaking around 80 nm, was found to be more stable and the effective density of these particles decreased as a function of particle size, being 3-4 g/cm3at the maximum. The results of this work suggest that the cores of these particles already exist in the boiler and partly consist of heavier lead and zinc compounds. The ferric sulfate feeding decreased the number and mass concentration of the smaller mode particles, which are formed in the sampling and dilution processes mainly from the gas phase alkali chlorides. These condensable species were also linked to the negative net charge of particles. This study deepens the understanding of the combustion process and the sampling of aerosol particles with an aspect of on-line monitoring

KW - aerosol

KW - fluidized bed boiler

KW - nanoparticles

KW - real time measurement

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.048

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.048

M3 - Article

VL - 139

SP - 144

EP - 153

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -

Kuuluvainen H, Karjalainen P, Bajamundi C, Maunula J, Vainikka P, Roppo J et al. Physical properties of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler. Fuel. 2015;139:144 - 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.048