Physics and applications of three-ion ICRF scenarios for fusion research

Ye.O. Kazakov (Corresponding Author), J. Ongena, J.C. Wright, S.J. Wukitch, V. Bobkov, J. Garcia, V.G. Kiptily, M.J. Mantsinen, M. Nocente, M. Schneider, H. Weisen, Y. Baranov, M. Baruzzo, R. Bilato, A. Chomiczewska, R. Coelho, T. Craciunescu, K. Crombé, M. Dreval, R. DumontP. Dumortier, F. Durodié, J. Eriksson, M. Fitzgerald, J. Galdon-Quiroga, D. Gallart, M. García-Muñoz, L. Giacomelli, C. Giroud, J. Gonzalez-Martin, Antti Hakola, P. Jacquet, T. Johnson, A. Kappatou, D. Keeling, D. King, K.K. Kirov, P. Lamalle, M. Lennholm, E. Lerche, M. Maslov, S. Mazzi, S. Menmuir, I. Monakhov, F. Nabais, M.F.F. Nave, R. Ochoukov, A.R. Polevoi, S.D. Pinches, U. Plank, D. Rigamonti, M. Salewski, P.A. Schneider, S.E. Sharapov, Ž. Štancar, A. Thorman, D. Valcarcel, D. Van Eester, M. Van Schoor, J. Varje, M. Weiland, N. Wendler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


This paper summarizes the physical principles behind the novel three-ion scenarios using radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). We discuss how to transform mode conversion electron heating into a new flexible ICRF technique for ion cyclotron heating and fast-ion generation in multi-ion species plasmas. The theoretical section provides practical recipes for selecting the plasma composition to realize three-ion ICRF scenarios, including two equivalent possibilities for the choice of resonant absorbers that have been identified. The theoretical findings have been convincingly confirmed by the proof-of-principle experiments in mixed H-D plasmas on the Alcator C-Mod and JET tokamaks, using thermal 3He and fast D ions from neutral beam injection as resonant absorbers. Since 2018, significant progress has been made on the ASDEX Upgrade and JET tokamaks in H-4He and H-D plasmas, guided by the ITER needs. Furthermore, the scenario was also successfully applied in JET D-3He plasmas as a technique to generate fusion-born alpha particles and study effects of fast ions on plasma confinement under ITER-relevant plasma heating conditions. Tuned for the central deposition of ICRF power in a small region in the plasma core of large devices such as JET, three-ion ICRF scenarios are efficient in generating large populations of passing fast ions and modifying the q-profile. Recent experimental and modeling developments have expanded the use of three-ion scenarios from dedicated ICRF studies to a flexible tool with a broad range of different applications in fusion research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number020501
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014–2018 and 2019–2020 under Grant Agreement No. 633053. Part of this work was also carried out in the framework of projects done for the ITER Scientist Fellow Network (ISFN).


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