Piezoelectric ZnO films by r.f. sputtering

Jyrki Molarius, Jyrki Kaitila, Tuomas Pensala, Markku Ylilammi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    46 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Piezoelectric zinc oxide films are used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, where they can be used in sensors to detect, e.g., pressure or acceleration. Beside sensors, ZnO films are applied in activation devices, where force is needed. Conductive-doped zinc oxide (most often with aluminum) is also used in optoelectronics. Piezoelectric films including AlN and ZnO are more difficult to produce than the corresponding conductive materials. In order to achieve good piezoelectricity in ZnO films, they have to possess high purity, a (0 0 1) orientation (ZnO has hexagonal crystal structure), high resistivity, and fine columnar microstructure perpendicular to the substrate. We have used r.f. magnetron (13.56 MHz) sputtering from a ZnO target in an oxygen atmosphere to achieve the piezoelectric ZnO. The aim of this work has been to develop an r.f. sputtering process for ZnO to achieve highly piezoelectric thin films. As a test vehicle to measure the piezoelectricity of the ZnO films we have fabricated resonators and passband filters in the 1–2 GHz range using standard microelectronics photolithography, deposition, and etching techniques on 100-mm diameter Corning glass or silicon wafers. The influence of the sputtering-process parameters on the film properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. In this study, the effects of the process parameters on the final material properties of the ZnO film are discussed in detail.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)431-435
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
    Volume14
    Issue number5-7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2003
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Sputtering
    sputtering
    Zinc Oxide
    piezoelectricity
    Piezoelectricity
    Zinc oxide
    zinc oxides
    test vehicles
    Conductive materials
    sensors
    Sensors
    Photolithography
    photolithography
    Aluminum
    Silicon wafers
    microelectronics
    Microelectronics
    Crystal orientation
    Optoelectronic devices
    electrical measurement

    Cite this

    Molarius, Jyrki ; Kaitila, Jyrki ; Pensala, Tuomas ; Ylilammi, Markku. / Piezoelectric ZnO films by r.f. sputtering. In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. 2003 ; Vol. 14, No. 5-7. pp. 431-435.
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    title = "Piezoelectric ZnO films by r.f. sputtering",
    abstract = "Piezoelectric zinc oxide films are used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, where they can be used in sensors to detect, e.g., pressure or acceleration. Beside sensors, ZnO films are applied in activation devices, where force is needed. Conductive-doped zinc oxide (most often with aluminum) is also used in optoelectronics. Piezoelectric films including AlN and ZnO are more difficult to produce than the corresponding conductive materials. In order to achieve good piezoelectricity in ZnO films, they have to possess high purity, a (0 0 1) orientation (ZnO has hexagonal crystal structure), high resistivity, and fine columnar microstructure perpendicular to the substrate. We have used r.f. magnetron (13.56 MHz) sputtering from a ZnO target in an oxygen atmosphere to achieve the piezoelectric ZnO. The aim of this work has been to develop an r.f. sputtering process for ZnO to achieve highly piezoelectric thin films. As a test vehicle to measure the piezoelectricity of the ZnO films we have fabricated resonators and passband filters in the 1–2 GHz range using standard microelectronics photolithography, deposition, and etching techniques on 100-mm diameter Corning glass or silicon wafers. The influence of the sputtering-process parameters on the film properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. In this study, the effects of the process parameters on the final material properties of the ZnO film are discussed in detail.",
    author = "Jyrki Molarius and Jyrki Kaitila and Tuomas Pensala and Markku Ylilammi",
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    Piezoelectric ZnO films by r.f. sputtering. / Molarius, Jyrki; Kaitila, Jyrki; Pensala, Tuomas; Ylilammi, Markku.

    In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 5-7, 2003, p. 431-435.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Molarius, Jyrki

    AU - Kaitila, Jyrki

    AU - Pensala, Tuomas

    AU - Ylilammi, Markku

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    PY - 2003

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    N2 - Piezoelectric zinc oxide films are used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, where they can be used in sensors to detect, e.g., pressure or acceleration. Beside sensors, ZnO films are applied in activation devices, where force is needed. Conductive-doped zinc oxide (most often with aluminum) is also used in optoelectronics. Piezoelectric films including AlN and ZnO are more difficult to produce than the corresponding conductive materials. In order to achieve good piezoelectricity in ZnO films, they have to possess high purity, a (0 0 1) orientation (ZnO has hexagonal crystal structure), high resistivity, and fine columnar microstructure perpendicular to the substrate. We have used r.f. magnetron (13.56 MHz) sputtering from a ZnO target in an oxygen atmosphere to achieve the piezoelectric ZnO. The aim of this work has been to develop an r.f. sputtering process for ZnO to achieve highly piezoelectric thin films. As a test vehicle to measure the piezoelectricity of the ZnO films we have fabricated resonators and passband filters in the 1–2 GHz range using standard microelectronics photolithography, deposition, and etching techniques on 100-mm diameter Corning glass or silicon wafers. The influence of the sputtering-process parameters on the film properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. In this study, the effects of the process parameters on the final material properties of the ZnO film are discussed in detail.

    AB - Piezoelectric zinc oxide films are used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, where they can be used in sensors to detect, e.g., pressure or acceleration. Beside sensors, ZnO films are applied in activation devices, where force is needed. Conductive-doped zinc oxide (most often with aluminum) is also used in optoelectronics. Piezoelectric films including AlN and ZnO are more difficult to produce than the corresponding conductive materials. In order to achieve good piezoelectricity in ZnO films, they have to possess high purity, a (0 0 1) orientation (ZnO has hexagonal crystal structure), high resistivity, and fine columnar microstructure perpendicular to the substrate. We have used r.f. magnetron (13.56 MHz) sputtering from a ZnO target in an oxygen atmosphere to achieve the piezoelectric ZnO. The aim of this work has been to develop an r.f. sputtering process for ZnO to achieve highly piezoelectric thin films. As a test vehicle to measure the piezoelectricity of the ZnO films we have fabricated resonators and passband filters in the 1–2 GHz range using standard microelectronics photolithography, deposition, and etching techniques on 100-mm diameter Corning glass or silicon wafers. The influence of the sputtering-process parameters on the film properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. In this study, the effects of the process parameters on the final material properties of the ZnO film are discussed in detail.

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