Planck early results. XVII: Origin of the submillimetre excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds

Jussi Tuovinen, Jussi Varis, J.-P. Bernard (Corresponding Author), Planck Collaboration

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    52 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The integrated spectral energy distributions (SED) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) appear significantly flatter than expected from dust models based on their far-infrared and radio emission. The still unexplained origin of this millimetre excess is investigated here using the Planck data. The integrated SED of the two galaxies before subtraction of the foreground (Milky Way) and background (CMB fluctuations) emission are in good agreement with previous determinations, confirming the presence of the millimetre excess. In the context of this preliminary analysis we do not propose a full multi-component fitting of the data, but instead subtract contributions unrelated to the galaxies and to dust emission. The background CMB contribution is subtracted using an internal linear combination (ILC) method performed locally around the galaxies. The foreground emission from the Milky Way is subtracted as a Galactic Hi template, and the dust emissivity is derived in a region surrounding the two galaxies and dominated by Milky Way emission. After subtraction, the remaining emission of both galaxies correlates closely with the atomic and molecular gas emission of the LMC and SMC. The millimetre excess in the LMC can be explained by CMB fluctuations, but a significant excess is still present in the SMC SED. The Planck and IRAS–IRIS data at 100 μm are combined to produce thermal dust temperature and optical depth maps of the two galaxies. The LMC temperature map shows the presence of a warm inner arm already found with the Spitzer data, but which also shows the existence of a previously unidentified cold outer arm. Several cold regions are found along this arm, some of which are associated with known molecular clouds. The dust optical depth maps are used to constrain the thermal dust emissivity power-law index (β). The average spectral index is found to be consistent with β = 1.5 and β = 1.2 below 500μm for the LMC and SMC respectively, significantly flatter than the values observed in the Milky Way. Also, there is evidence in the SMC of a further flattening of the SED in the sub-mm, unlike for the LMC where the SED remains consistent with β = 1.5. The spatial distribution of the millimetre dustexcess in the SMC follows the gas and thermal dust distribution. Different models are explored in order to fit the dust emission in the SMC. It is concluded that the millimetre excess is unlikely to be caused by very cold dust emission and that it could be due to a combination of spinning dust emission and thermal dust emission by more amorphous dust grains than those present in our Galaxy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberA17
    Number of pages17
    JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
    Volume536
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Magellanic clouds
    dust
    spectral energy distribution
    galaxies
    energy
    emissivity
    optical depth
    subtraction
    optical thickness
    cold region
    monatomic gases
    flattening
    gas
    molecular gases
    radio emission
    molecular clouds
    distribution
    metal spinning
    power law
    spatial distribution

    Keywords

    • Dust
    • extinction
    • galaxies
    • infrared
    • ISM
    • magellanic clouds
    • structure
    • submillimeter

    Cite this

    @article{606a5d19654948ebabbb2c00350f6346,
    title = "Planck early results. XVII: Origin of the submillimetre excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds",
    abstract = "The integrated spectral energy distributions (SED) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) appear significantly flatter than expected from dust models based on their far-infrared and radio emission. The still unexplained origin of this millimetre excess is investigated here using the Planck data. The integrated SED of the two galaxies before subtraction of the foreground (Milky Way) and background (CMB fluctuations) emission are in good agreement with previous determinations, confirming the presence of the millimetre excess. In the context of this preliminary analysis we do not propose a full multi-component fitting of the data, but instead subtract contributions unrelated to the galaxies and to dust emission. The background CMB contribution is subtracted using an internal linear combination (ILC) method performed locally around the galaxies. The foreground emission from the Milky Way is subtracted as a Galactic Hi template, and the dust emissivity is derived in a region surrounding the two galaxies and dominated by Milky Way emission. After subtraction, the remaining emission of both galaxies correlates closely with the atomic and molecular gas emission of the LMC and SMC. The millimetre excess in the LMC can be explained by CMB fluctuations, but a significant excess is still present in the SMC SED. The Planck and IRAS–IRIS data at 100 μm are combined to produce thermal dust temperature and optical depth maps of the two galaxies. The LMC temperature map shows the presence of a warm inner arm already found with the Spitzer data, but which also shows the existence of a previously unidentified cold outer arm. Several cold regions are found along this arm, some of which are associated with known molecular clouds. The dust optical depth maps are used to constrain the thermal dust emissivity power-law index (β). The average spectral index is found to be consistent with β = 1.5 and β = 1.2 below 500μm for the LMC and SMC respectively, significantly flatter than the values observed in the Milky Way. Also, there is evidence in the SMC of a further flattening of the SED in the sub-mm, unlike for the LMC where the SED remains consistent with β = 1.5. The spatial distribution of the millimetre dustexcess in the SMC follows the gas and thermal dust distribution. Different models are explored in order to fit the dust emission in the SMC. It is concluded that the millimetre excess is unlikely to be caused by very cold dust emission and that it could be due to a combination of spinning dust emission and thermal dust emission by more amorphous dust grains than those present in our Galaxy.",
    keywords = "Dust, extinction, galaxies, infrared, ISM, magellanic clouds, structure, submillimeter",
    author = "P.A.R. Ade and N. Aghanim and M. Arnaud and Jussi Tuovinen and Jussi Varis and J.-P. Bernard and {Planck Collaboration}",
    note = "Project code: 18080",
    year = "2011",
    doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201116473",
    language = "English",
    volume = "536",
    journal = "Astronomy and Astrophysics",
    issn = "0004-6361",
    publisher = "EDP Sciences",

    }

    Planck early results. XVII : Origin of the submillimetre excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds. / Tuovinen, Jussi; Varis, Jussi; Bernard, J.-P. (Corresponding Author); Planck Collaboration.

    In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 536, A17, 2011.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Planck early results. XVII

    T2 - Origin of the submillimetre excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds

    AU - Ade, P.A.R.

    AU - Aghanim, N.

    AU - Arnaud, M.

    AU - Tuovinen, Jussi

    AU - Varis, Jussi

    AU - Bernard, J.-P.

    AU - Planck Collaboration

    N1 - Project code: 18080

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - The integrated spectral energy distributions (SED) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) appear significantly flatter than expected from dust models based on their far-infrared and radio emission. The still unexplained origin of this millimetre excess is investigated here using the Planck data. The integrated SED of the two galaxies before subtraction of the foreground (Milky Way) and background (CMB fluctuations) emission are in good agreement with previous determinations, confirming the presence of the millimetre excess. In the context of this preliminary analysis we do not propose a full multi-component fitting of the data, but instead subtract contributions unrelated to the galaxies and to dust emission. The background CMB contribution is subtracted using an internal linear combination (ILC) method performed locally around the galaxies. The foreground emission from the Milky Way is subtracted as a Galactic Hi template, and the dust emissivity is derived in a region surrounding the two galaxies and dominated by Milky Way emission. After subtraction, the remaining emission of both galaxies correlates closely with the atomic and molecular gas emission of the LMC and SMC. The millimetre excess in the LMC can be explained by CMB fluctuations, but a significant excess is still present in the SMC SED. The Planck and IRAS–IRIS data at 100 μm are combined to produce thermal dust temperature and optical depth maps of the two galaxies. The LMC temperature map shows the presence of a warm inner arm already found with the Spitzer data, but which also shows the existence of a previously unidentified cold outer arm. Several cold regions are found along this arm, some of which are associated with known molecular clouds. The dust optical depth maps are used to constrain the thermal dust emissivity power-law index (β). The average spectral index is found to be consistent with β = 1.5 and β = 1.2 below 500μm for the LMC and SMC respectively, significantly flatter than the values observed in the Milky Way. Also, there is evidence in the SMC of a further flattening of the SED in the sub-mm, unlike for the LMC where the SED remains consistent with β = 1.5. The spatial distribution of the millimetre dustexcess in the SMC follows the gas and thermal dust distribution. Different models are explored in order to fit the dust emission in the SMC. It is concluded that the millimetre excess is unlikely to be caused by very cold dust emission and that it could be due to a combination of spinning dust emission and thermal dust emission by more amorphous dust grains than those present in our Galaxy.

    AB - The integrated spectral energy distributions (SED) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) appear significantly flatter than expected from dust models based on their far-infrared and radio emission. The still unexplained origin of this millimetre excess is investigated here using the Planck data. The integrated SED of the two galaxies before subtraction of the foreground (Milky Way) and background (CMB fluctuations) emission are in good agreement with previous determinations, confirming the presence of the millimetre excess. In the context of this preliminary analysis we do not propose a full multi-component fitting of the data, but instead subtract contributions unrelated to the galaxies and to dust emission. The background CMB contribution is subtracted using an internal linear combination (ILC) method performed locally around the galaxies. The foreground emission from the Milky Way is subtracted as a Galactic Hi template, and the dust emissivity is derived in a region surrounding the two galaxies and dominated by Milky Way emission. After subtraction, the remaining emission of both galaxies correlates closely with the atomic and molecular gas emission of the LMC and SMC. The millimetre excess in the LMC can be explained by CMB fluctuations, but a significant excess is still present in the SMC SED. The Planck and IRAS–IRIS data at 100 μm are combined to produce thermal dust temperature and optical depth maps of the two galaxies. The LMC temperature map shows the presence of a warm inner arm already found with the Spitzer data, but which also shows the existence of a previously unidentified cold outer arm. Several cold regions are found along this arm, some of which are associated with known molecular clouds. The dust optical depth maps are used to constrain the thermal dust emissivity power-law index (β). The average spectral index is found to be consistent with β = 1.5 and β = 1.2 below 500μm for the LMC and SMC respectively, significantly flatter than the values observed in the Milky Way. Also, there is evidence in the SMC of a further flattening of the SED in the sub-mm, unlike for the LMC where the SED remains consistent with β = 1.5. The spatial distribution of the millimetre dustexcess in the SMC follows the gas and thermal dust distribution. Different models are explored in order to fit the dust emission in the SMC. It is concluded that the millimetre excess is unlikely to be caused by very cold dust emission and that it could be due to a combination of spinning dust emission and thermal dust emission by more amorphous dust grains than those present in our Galaxy.

    KW - Dust

    KW - extinction

    KW - galaxies

    KW - infrared

    KW - ISM

    KW - magellanic clouds

    KW - structure

    KW - submillimeter

    U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201116473

    DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201116473

    M3 - Article

    VL - 536

    JO - Astronomy and Astrophysics

    JF - Astronomy and Astrophysics

    SN - 0004-6361

    M1 - A17

    ER -