Plant-made nervous necrosis virus-like particles protect fish against disease

Johanna Marsian, Daniel L. Hurdiss, Neil A. Ranson, Anneli Ritala, Richard Paley, Irene Cano, George P. Lomonossoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Virus-like particles (VLPs) of the fish virus, Atlantic Cod Nervous necrosis virus (ACNNV), were successfully produced by transient expression of the coat protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. VLPs could also be produced in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells. The protein extracted from plants self-assembled into T = 3 particles, that appeared to be morphologically similar to previously analyzed NNV VLPs when analyzed by high resolution cryo-electron microscopy. Administration of the plant-produced VLPs to sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) showed that they could protect the fish against subsequent virus challenge, indicating that plant-produced vaccines may have a substantial future role in aquaculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number880
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Atlantic cod nervous necrosis virus
  • Protective immunity
  • Sea bass
  • Transient expression
  • Virus-like particles

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