Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification

S. Brezinsek (Corresponding Author), J.W. Coenen, T. Schwarz-Selinger, K. Schmid, A. Kirschner, Antti Hakola, F.L. Tabares, H.J. van der Meiden, M.-L. Mayoral, M. Reinhart, E. Tsitrone, T. Ahlgren, M. Aints, Markus Airila, S. Almaviva, E. Alves, T. Angot, V. Anita, R. Arredondo Parra, F. AumayrM. Balden, J. Bauer, M. Ben Yaala, B.M. Berger, R. Bisson, C. Björkas, I. Bogdanovic Radovic, D. Borodin, J. Bucalossi, J. Butikova, B. Butoi, I. Cadez, R. Caniello, L. Caneve, G. Cartry, N. Catarino, M. Cekada, G. Ciraolo, L. Ciupinski, F. Colao, Y. Corre, C. Costin, T. Craciunescu, A. Cremona, M. De Angeli, A. de Castro, R. Dejarnac, D. Dellasega, P. Dinca, T. Dittmar, C. Dobrea, P. Hansen, A. Drenik, T. Eich, S. Elgeti, D. Falie, N. Fedorczak, Y. Ferro, T. Fornal, E. Fortuna-Zalesna, L. Gao, P. Gasior, M. Gherendi, F. Ghezzi, Z. Gosar, H. Greuner, E. Grigore, C. Grisolia, M. Groth, M. Gruca, J. Grzonka, J.P. Gunn, K. Hassouni, K. Heinola, T. Höschen, S. Huber, W. Jacob, I. Jepu, X. Jiang, I. Jogi, A. Kaiser, J. Karhunen, M. Kelemen, M. Köppen, H.R. Koslowski, A. Kreter, M. Kubkowska, M. Laan, L. Laguardia, A. Lahtinen, A. Lasa, V. Lazic, N. Lemahieu, Jari Likonen, J. Linke, A. Litnovsky, Ch. Linsmeier, T. Loewenhoff, C. Lungu, M. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, H. Maier, T. Makkonen, A. Manhard, Y. Marandet, S. Markelj, L. Marot, C. Martin, A.B. Martin-Rojo, Y. Martynova, R. Mateus, D. Matveev, M. Mayer, G. Meisl, N. Mellet, A. Michau, J. Miettunen, S. Möller, T.W. Morgan, J. Mougenot, M. Mozetic, V. Nemanic, R. Neu, K. Nordlund, M. Oberkofler, E. Oyarzabal, M. Panjan, C. Pardanaud, P. Paris, M. Passoni, B. Pegourie, P. Pelicon, P. Petersson, K. Piip, G. Pintsuk, G.O. Pompilian, G. Popa, C. Porosnicu, G. Primc, M. Probst, J. Räisänen, M. Rasinski, S. Ratynskaia, D, Reiser, D. Ricci, M. Richou, J. Riesch, G. Riva, M. Rosinski, P. Roubin, M. Rubel, C. Ruset, E. Safi, G. Sergienko, Z. Siketic, A. Sima, B. Spilker, R. Stadlmayr, I. Steudel, P. Ström, T. Tadic, D. Tafalla, I. Tale, D. Terentyev, A. Terra, V. Tiron, I. Tiseanu, P. Tolias, D. Tskhakaya, A. Uccello, B. Unterberg, I. Uytdenhoven, E. Vassallo, P. Vavpetic, P. Veis, I.L. Velicu, J.W.M. Vernimmen, A. Voitkans, U. von Toussaint, A. Weckmann, M. Wirtz, A. Zaloznik, R. Zaplotnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.
Original languageEnglish
Article number116041
Number of pages9
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume57
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

qualifications
interactions
heat
fusion
steels
quasi-steady states
outgassing
ductility
machining
complement
erosion
specifications
grade
safety
critical point
roughness
dust
sputtering
ion beams
engineering

Keywords

  • plasma-facing components
  • plasma-surface interaction
  • power exhaust
  • particle exhaust
  • tungsten
  • beryllium

Cite this

Brezinsek, S. ; Coenen, J.W. ; Schwarz-Selinger, T. ; Schmid, K. ; Kirschner, A. ; Hakola, Antti ; Tabares, F.L. ; van der Meiden, H.J. ; Mayoral, M.-L. ; Reinhart, M. ; Tsitrone, E. ; Ahlgren, T. ; Aints, M. ; Airila, Markus ; Almaviva, S. ; Alves, E. ; Angot, T. ; Anita, V. ; Arredondo Parra, R. ; Aumayr, F. ; Balden, M. ; Bauer, J. ; Ben Yaala, M. ; Berger, B.M. ; Bisson, R. ; Björkas, C. ; Bogdanovic Radovic, I. ; Borodin, D. ; Bucalossi, J. ; Butikova, J. ; Butoi, B. ; Cadez, I. ; Caniello, R. ; Caneve, L. ; Cartry, G. ; Catarino, N. ; Cekada, M. ; Ciraolo, G. ; Ciupinski, L. ; Colao, F. ; Corre, Y. ; Costin, C. ; Craciunescu, T. ; Cremona, A. ; De Angeli, M. ; de Castro, A. ; Dejarnac, R. ; Dellasega, D. ; Dinca, P. ; Dittmar, T. ; Dobrea, C. ; Hansen, P. ; Drenik, A. ; Eich, T. ; Elgeti, S. ; Falie, D. ; Fedorczak, N. ; Ferro, Y. ; Fornal, T. ; Fortuna-Zalesna, E. ; Gao, L. ; Gasior, P. ; Gherendi, M. ; Ghezzi, F. ; Gosar, Z. ; Greuner, H. ; Grigore, E. ; Grisolia, C. ; Groth, M. ; Gruca, M. ; Grzonka, J. ; Gunn, J.P. ; Hassouni, K. ; Heinola, K. ; Höschen, T. ; Huber, S. ; Jacob, W. ; Jepu, I. ; Jiang, X. ; Jogi, I. ; Kaiser, A. ; Karhunen, J. ; Kelemen, M. ; Köppen, M. ; Koslowski, H.R. ; Kreter, A. ; Kubkowska, M. ; Laan, M. ; Laguardia, L. ; Lahtinen, A. ; Lasa, A. ; Lazic, V. ; Lemahieu, N. ; Likonen, Jari ; Linke, J. ; Litnovsky, A. ; Linsmeier, Ch. ; Loewenhoff, T. ; Lungu, C. ; Lungu, M. ; Maddaluno, G. ; Maier, H. ; Makkonen, T. ; Manhard, A. ; Marandet, Y. ; Markelj, S. ; Marot, L. ; Martin, C. ; Martin-Rojo, A.B. ; Martynova, Y. ; Mateus, R. ; Matveev, D. ; Mayer, M. ; Meisl, G. ; Mellet, N. ; Michau, A. ; Miettunen, J. ; Möller, S. ; Morgan, T.W. ; Mougenot, J. ; Mozetic, M. ; Nemanic, V. ; Neu, R. ; Nordlund, K. ; Oberkofler, M. ; Oyarzabal, E. ; Panjan, M. ; Pardanaud, C. ; Paris, P. ; Passoni, M. ; Pegourie, B. ; Pelicon, P. ; Petersson, P. ; Piip, K. ; Pintsuk, G. ; Pompilian, G.O. ; Popa, G. ; Porosnicu, C. ; Primc, G. ; Probst, M. ; Räisänen, J. ; Rasinski, M. ; Ratynskaia, S. ; Reiser, D, ; Ricci, D. ; Richou, M. ; Riesch, J. ; Riva, G. ; Rosinski, M. ; Roubin, P. ; Rubel, M. ; Ruset, C. ; Safi, E. ; Sergienko, G. ; Siketic, Z. ; Sima, A. ; Spilker, B. ; Stadlmayr, R. ; Steudel, I. ; Ström, P. ; Tadic, T. ; Tafalla, D. ; Tale, I. ; Terentyev, D. ; Terra, A. ; Tiron, V. ; Tiseanu, I. ; Tolias, P. ; Tskhakaya, D. ; Uccello, A. ; Unterberg, B. ; Uytdenhoven, I. ; Vassallo, E. ; Vavpetic, P. ; Veis, P. ; Velicu, I.L. ; Vernimmen, J.W.M. ; Voitkans, A. ; von Toussaint, U. ; Weckmann, A. ; Wirtz, M. ; Zaloznik, A. ; Zaplotnik, R. / Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium : Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2017 ; Vol. 57, No. 11.
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title = "Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification",
abstract = "The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.",
keywords = "plasma-facing components, plasma-surface interaction, power exhaust, particle exhaust, tungsten, beryllium",
author = "S. Brezinsek and J.W. Coenen and T. Schwarz-Selinger and K. Schmid and A. Kirschner and Antti Hakola and F.L. Tabares and {van der Meiden}, H.J. and M.-L. Mayoral and M. Reinhart and E. Tsitrone and T. Ahlgren and M. Aints and Markus Airila and S. Almaviva and E. Alves and T. Angot and V. Anita and {Arredondo Parra}, R. and F. Aumayr and M. Balden and J. Bauer and {Ben Yaala}, M. and B.M. Berger and R. Bisson and C. Bj{\"o}rkas and {Bogdanovic Radovic}, I. and D. Borodin and J. Bucalossi and J. Butikova and B. Butoi and I. Cadez and R. Caniello and L. Caneve and G. Cartry and N. Catarino and M. Cekada and G. Ciraolo and L. Ciupinski and F. Colao and Y. Corre and C. Costin and T. Craciunescu and A. Cremona and {De Angeli}, M. and {de Castro}, A. and R. Dejarnac and D. Dellasega and P. Dinca and T. Dittmar and C. Dobrea and P. Hansen and A. Drenik and T. Eich and S. Elgeti and D. Falie and N. Fedorczak and Y. Ferro and T. Fornal and E. Fortuna-Zalesna and L. Gao and P. Gasior and M. Gherendi and F. Ghezzi and Z. Gosar and H. Greuner and E. Grigore and C. Grisolia and M. Groth and M. Gruca and J. Grzonka and J.P. Gunn and K. Hassouni and K. Heinola and T. H{\"o}schen and S. Huber and W. Jacob and I. Jepu and X. Jiang and I. Jogi and A. Kaiser and J. Karhunen and M. Kelemen and M. K{\"o}ppen and H.R. Koslowski and A. Kreter and M. Kubkowska and M. Laan and L. Laguardia and A. Lahtinen and A. Lasa and V. Lazic and N. Lemahieu and Jari Likonen and J. Linke and A. Litnovsky and Ch. Linsmeier and T. Loewenhoff and C. Lungu and M. Lungu and G. Maddaluno and H. Maier and T. Makkonen and A. Manhard and Y. Marandet and S. Markelj and L. Marot and C. Martin and A.B. Martin-Rojo and Y. Martynova and R. Mateus and D. Matveev and M. Mayer and G. Meisl and N. Mellet and A. Michau and J. Miettunen and S. M{\"o}ller and T.W. Morgan and J. Mougenot and M. Mozetic and V. Nemanic and R. Neu and K. Nordlund and M. Oberkofler and E. Oyarzabal and M. Panjan and C. Pardanaud and P. Paris and M. Passoni and B. Pegourie and P. Pelicon and P. Petersson and K. Piip and G. Pintsuk and G.O. Pompilian and G. Popa and C. Porosnicu and G. Primc and M. Probst and J. R{\"a}is{\"a}nen and M. Rasinski and S. Ratynskaia and D, Reiser and D. Ricci and M. Richou and J. Riesch and G. Riva and M. Rosinski and P. Roubin and M. Rubel and C. Ruset and E. Safi and G. Sergienko and Z. Siketic and A. Sima and B. Spilker and R. Stadlmayr and I. Steudel and P. Str{\"o}m and T. Tadic and D. Tafalla and I. Tale and D. Terentyev and A. Terra and V. Tiron and I. Tiseanu and P. Tolias and D. Tskhakaya and A. Uccello and B. Unterberg and I. Uytdenhoven and E. Vassallo and P. Vavpetic and P. Veis and I.L. Velicu and J.W.M. Vernimmen and A. Voitkans and {von Toussaint}, U. and A. Weckmann and M. Wirtz and A. Zaloznik and R. Zaplotnik",
note = "Project code: 114280",
year = "2017",
month = "8",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
journal = "Nuclear Fusion",
issn = "0029-5515",
publisher = "Institute of Physics IOP",
number = "11",

}

Brezinsek, S, Coenen, JW, Schwarz-Selinger, T, Schmid, K, Kirschner, A, Hakola, A, Tabares, FL, van der Meiden, HJ, Mayoral, M-L, Reinhart, M, Tsitrone, E, Ahlgren, T, Aints, M, Airila, M, Almaviva, S, Alves, E, Angot, T, Anita, V, Arredondo Parra, R, Aumayr, F, Balden, M, Bauer, J, Ben Yaala, M, Berger, BM, Bisson, R, Björkas, C, Bogdanovic Radovic, I, Borodin, D, Bucalossi, J, Butikova, J, Butoi, B, Cadez, I, Caniello, R, Caneve, L, Cartry, G, Catarino, N, Cekada, M, Ciraolo, G, Ciupinski, L, Colao, F, Corre, Y, Costin, C, Craciunescu, T, Cremona, A, De Angeli, M, de Castro, A, Dejarnac, R, Dellasega, D, Dinca, P, Dittmar, T, Dobrea, C, Hansen, P, Drenik, A, Eich, T, Elgeti, S, Falie, D, Fedorczak, N, Ferro, Y, Fornal, T, Fortuna-Zalesna, E, Gao, L, Gasior, P, Gherendi, M, Ghezzi, F, Gosar, Z, Greuner, H, Grigore, E, Grisolia, C, Groth, M, Gruca, M, Grzonka, J, Gunn, JP, Hassouni, K, Heinola, K, Höschen, T, Huber, S, Jacob, W, Jepu, I, Jiang, X, Jogi, I, Kaiser, A, Karhunen, J, Kelemen, M, Köppen, M, Koslowski, HR, Kreter, A, Kubkowska, M, Laan, M, Laguardia, L, Lahtinen, A, Lasa, A, Lazic, V, Lemahieu, N, Likonen, J, Linke, J, Litnovsky, A, Linsmeier, C, Loewenhoff, T, Lungu, C, Lungu, M, Maddaluno, G, Maier, H, Makkonen, T, Manhard, A, Marandet, Y, Markelj, S, Marot, L, Martin, C, Martin-Rojo, AB, Martynova, Y, Mateus, R, Matveev, D, Mayer, M, Meisl, G, Mellet, N, Michau, A, Miettunen, J, Möller, S, Morgan, TW, Mougenot, J, Mozetic, M, Nemanic, V, Neu, R, Nordlund, K, Oberkofler, M, Oyarzabal, E, Panjan, M, Pardanaud, C, Paris, P, Passoni, M, Pegourie, B, Pelicon, P, Petersson, P, Piip, K, Pintsuk, G, Pompilian, GO, Popa, G, Porosnicu, C, Primc, G, Probst, M, Räisänen, J, Rasinski, M, Ratynskaia, S, Reiser, D, Ricci, D, Richou, M, Riesch, J, Riva, G, Rosinski, M, Roubin, P, Rubel, M, Ruset, C, Safi, E, Sergienko, G, Siketic, Z, Sima, A, Spilker, B, Stadlmayr, R, Steudel, I, Ström, P, Tadic, T, Tafalla, D, Tale, I, Terentyev, D, Terra, A, Tiron, V, Tiseanu, I, Tolias, P, Tskhakaya, D, Uccello, A, Unterberg, B, Uytdenhoven, I, Vassallo, E, Vavpetic, P, Veis, P, Velicu, IL, Vernimmen, JWM, Voitkans, A, von Toussaint, U, Weckmann, A, Wirtz, M, Zaloznik, A & Zaplotnik, R 2017, 'Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 57, no. 11, 116041. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e

Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium : Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification. / Brezinsek, S. (Corresponding Author); Coenen, J.W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Schmid, K.; Kirschner, A.; Hakola, Antti; Tabares, F.L.; van der Meiden, H.J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Reinhart, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Ahlgren, T.; Aints, M.; Airila, Markus; Almaviva, S.; Alves, E.; Angot, T.; Anita, V.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Aumayr, F.; Balden, M.; Bauer, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Berger, B.M.; Bisson, R.; Björkas, C.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Borodin, D.; Bucalossi, J.; Butikova, J.; Butoi, B.; Cadez, I.; Caniello, R.; Caneve, L.; Cartry, G.; Catarino, N.; Cekada, M.; Ciraolo, G.; Ciupinski, L.; Colao, F.; Corre, Y.; Costin, C.; Craciunescu, T.; Cremona, A.; De Angeli, M.; de Castro, A.; Dejarnac, R.; Dellasega, D.; Dinca, P.; Dittmar, T.; Dobrea, C.; Hansen, P.; Drenik, A.; Eich, T.; Elgeti, S.; Falie, D.; Fedorczak, N.; Ferro, Y.; Fornal, T.; Fortuna-Zalesna, E.; Gao, L.; Gasior, P.; Gherendi, M.; Ghezzi, F.; Gosar, Z.; Greuner, H.; Grigore, E.; Grisolia, C.; Groth, M.; Gruca, M.; Grzonka, J.; Gunn, J.P.; Hassouni, K.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Huber, S.; Jacob, W.; Jepu, I.; Jiang, X.; Jogi, I.; Kaiser, A.; Karhunen, J.; Kelemen, M.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, H.R.; Kreter, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Laan, M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lasa, A.; Lazic, V.; Lemahieu, N.; Likonen, Jari; Linke, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lungu, C.; Lungu, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Manhard, A.; Marandet, Y.; Markelj, S.; Marot, L.; Martin, C.; Martin-Rojo, A.B.; Martynova, Y.; Mateus, R.; Matveev, D.; Mayer, M.; Meisl, G.; Mellet, N.; Michau, A.; Miettunen, J.; Möller, S.; Morgan, T.W.; Mougenot, J.; Mozetic, M.; Nemanic, V.; Neu, R.; Nordlund, K.; Oberkofler, M.; Oyarzabal, E.; Panjan, M.; Pardanaud, C.; Paris, P.; Passoni, M.; Pegourie, B.; Pelicon, P.; Petersson, P.; Piip, K.; Pintsuk, G.; Pompilian, G.O.; Popa, G.; Porosnicu, C.; Primc, G.; Probst, M.; Räisänen, J.; Rasinski, M.; Ratynskaia, S.; Reiser, D,; Ricci, D.; Richou, M.; Riesch, J.; Riva, G.; Rosinski, M.; Roubin, P.; Rubel, M.; Ruset, C.; Safi, E.; Sergienko, G.; Siketic, Z.; Sima, A.; Spilker, B.; Stadlmayr, R.; Steudel, I.; Ström, P.; Tadic, T.; Tafalla, D.; Tale, I.; Terentyev, D.; Terra, A.; Tiron, V.; Tiseanu, I.; Tolias, P.; Tskhakaya, D.; Uccello, A.; Unterberg, B.; Uytdenhoven, I.; Vassallo, E.; Vavpetic, P.; Veis, P.; Velicu, I.L.; Vernimmen, J.W.M.; Voitkans, A.; von Toussaint, U.; Weckmann, A.; Wirtz, M.; Zaloznik, A.; Zaplotnik, R.

In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 57, No. 11, 116041, 18.08.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium

T2 - Progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification

AU - Brezinsek, S.

AU - Coenen, J.W.

AU - Schwarz-Selinger, T.

AU - Schmid, K.

AU - Kirschner, A.

AU - Hakola, Antti

AU - Tabares, F.L.

AU - van der Meiden, H.J.

AU - Mayoral, M.-L.

AU - Reinhart, M.

AU - Tsitrone, E.

AU - Ahlgren, T.

AU - Aints, M.

AU - Airila, Markus

AU - Almaviva, S.

AU - Alves, E.

AU - Angot, T.

AU - Anita, V.

AU - Arredondo Parra, R.

AU - Aumayr, F.

AU - Balden, M.

AU - Bauer, J.

AU - Ben Yaala, M.

AU - Berger, B.M.

AU - Bisson, R.

AU - Björkas, C.

AU - Bogdanovic Radovic, I.

AU - Borodin, D.

AU - Bucalossi, J.

AU - Butikova, J.

AU - Butoi, B.

AU - Cadez, I.

AU - Caniello, R.

AU - Caneve, L.

AU - Cartry, G.

AU - Catarino, N.

AU - Cekada, M.

AU - Ciraolo, G.

AU - Ciupinski, L.

AU - Colao, F.

AU - Corre, Y.

AU - Costin, C.

AU - Craciunescu, T.

AU - Cremona, A.

AU - De Angeli, M.

AU - de Castro, A.

AU - Dejarnac, R.

AU - Dellasega, D.

AU - Dinca, P.

AU - Dittmar, T.

AU - Dobrea, C.

AU - Hansen, P.

AU - Drenik, A.

AU - Eich, T.

AU - Elgeti, S.

AU - Falie, D.

AU - Fedorczak, N.

AU - Ferro, Y.

AU - Fornal, T.

AU - Fortuna-Zalesna, E.

AU - Gao, L.

AU - Gasior, P.

AU - Gherendi, M.

AU - Ghezzi, F.

AU - Gosar, Z.

AU - Greuner, H.

AU - Grigore, E.

AU - Grisolia, C.

AU - Groth, M.

AU - Gruca, M.

AU - Grzonka, J.

AU - Gunn, J.P.

AU - Hassouni, K.

AU - Heinola, K.

AU - Höschen, T.

AU - Huber, S.

AU - Jacob, W.

AU - Jepu, I.

AU - Jiang, X.

AU - Jogi, I.

AU - Kaiser, A.

AU - Karhunen, J.

AU - Kelemen, M.

AU - Köppen, M.

AU - Koslowski, H.R.

AU - Kreter, A.

AU - Kubkowska, M.

AU - Laan, M.

AU - Laguardia, L.

AU - Lahtinen, A.

AU - Lasa, A.

AU - Lazic, V.

AU - Lemahieu, N.

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Linke, J.

AU - Litnovsky, A.

AU - Linsmeier, Ch.

AU - Loewenhoff, T.

AU - Lungu, C.

AU - Lungu, M.

AU - Maddaluno, G.

AU - Maier, H.

AU - Makkonen, T.

AU - Manhard, A.

AU - Marandet, Y.

AU - Markelj, S.

AU - Marot, L.

AU - Martin, C.

AU - Martin-Rojo, A.B.

AU - Martynova, Y.

AU - Mateus, R.

AU - Matveev, D.

AU - Mayer, M.

AU - Meisl, G.

AU - Mellet, N.

AU - Michau, A.

AU - Miettunen, J.

AU - Möller, S.

AU - Morgan, T.W.

AU - Mougenot, J.

AU - Mozetic, M.

AU - Nemanic, V.

AU - Neu, R.

AU - Nordlund, K.

AU - Oberkofler, M.

AU - Oyarzabal, E.

AU - Panjan, M.

AU - Pardanaud, C.

AU - Paris, P.

AU - Passoni, M.

AU - Pegourie, B.

AU - Pelicon, P.

AU - Petersson, P.

AU - Piip, K.

AU - Pintsuk, G.

AU - Pompilian, G.O.

AU - Popa, G.

AU - Porosnicu, C.

AU - Primc, G.

AU - Probst, M.

AU - Räisänen, J.

AU - Rasinski, M.

AU - Ratynskaia, S.

AU - Reiser, D,

AU - Ricci, D.

AU - Richou, M.

AU - Riesch, J.

AU - Riva, G.

AU - Rosinski, M.

AU - Roubin, P.

AU - Rubel, M.

AU - Ruset, C.

AU - Safi, E.

AU - Sergienko, G.

AU - Siketic, Z.

AU - Sima, A.

AU - Spilker, B.

AU - Stadlmayr, R.

AU - Steudel, I.

AU - Ström, P.

AU - Tadic, T.

AU - Tafalla, D.

AU - Tale, I.

AU - Terentyev, D.

AU - Terra, A.

AU - Tiron, V.

AU - Tiseanu, I.

AU - Tolias, P.

AU - Tskhakaya, D.

AU - Uccello, A.

AU - Unterberg, B.

AU - Uytdenhoven, I.

AU - Vassallo, E.

AU - Vavpetic, P.

AU - Veis, P.

AU - Velicu, I.L.

AU - Vernimmen, J.W.M.

AU - Voitkans, A.

AU - von Toussaint, U.

AU - Weckmann, A.

AU - Wirtz, M.

AU - Zaloznik, A.

AU - Zaplotnik, R.

N1 - Project code: 114280

PY - 2017/8/18

Y1 - 2017/8/18

N2 - The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.

AB - The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.

KW - plasma-facing components

KW - plasma-surface interaction

KW - power exhaust

KW - particle exhaust

KW - tungsten

KW - beryllium

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028465077&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e

DO - 10.1088/1741-4326/aa796e

M3 - Article

VL - 57

JO - Nuclear Fusion

JF - Nuclear Fusion

SN - 0029-5515

IS - 11

M1 - 116041

ER -