Polyvinyl alcohol as foaming agent in foam formed paper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH or PVA) as a foaming agent in foam formed paper was investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol is a linear, nonionic water-soluble polymer. It has hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts that give it a surface-active character. PVOH is mainly characterized by degree of hydrolysis and molar mass. Degree of hydrolysis is given as mol-% hydroxyl groups on the polymer. Molar mass is measured indirectly by measuring the viscosity of a 4% PVOH solution. The results show that the degree of hydrolysis of PVOH had a strong effect on the foamability of PVOH. Foamability decreased strongly when the degree of hydrolysis increased from 88 to 98 mol-%. The effect of molar mass on foamability was weaker. We saw an increase in foam stability and bubble size with increasing molar mass, but we did not see any effect on maximum air content. PVOH dosage needed to reach >70% air content (F) varied from 2 g/l up to 10.5 g/l, and the lowest addition levels of PVOH needed were achieved with a low molar mass PVOH with a low degree of hydrolysis. The best strength properties were achieved when using fully hydrolyzed PVOH as the foaming agent. Strength properties (both in- and out-of-plane) of samples made using PVOH were better than those made using an anionic foaming agent (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). By adding PVOH binder fibers to the pulp, we were able to further enhance the strength properties of paper and board.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475
Number of pages11
JournalTappi Journal
Volume18
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Polyvinyl Alcohol
Blowing agents
Molar mass
Polyvinyl alcohols
Foams
Hydrolysis
Polymers
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Air
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Hydroxyl Radical
Pulp
Binders
Viscosity
Water
Fibers

Cite this

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title = "Polyvinyl alcohol as foaming agent in foam formed paper",
abstract = "The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH or PVA) as a foaming agent in foam formed paper was investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol is a linear, nonionic water-soluble polymer. It has hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts that give it a surface-active character. PVOH is mainly characterized by degree of hydrolysis and molar mass. Degree of hydrolysis is given as mol-{\%} hydroxyl groups on the polymer. Molar mass is measured indirectly by measuring the viscosity of a 4{\%} PVOH solution. The results show that the degree of hydrolysis of PVOH had a strong effect on the foamability of PVOH. Foamability decreased strongly when the degree of hydrolysis increased from 88 to 98 mol-{\%}. The effect of molar mass on foamability was weaker. We saw an increase in foam stability and bubble size with increasing molar mass, but we did not see any effect on maximum air content. PVOH dosage needed to reach >70{\%} air content (F) varied from 2 g/l up to 10.5 g/l, and the lowest addition levels of PVOH needed were achieved with a low molar mass PVOH with a low degree of hydrolysis. The best strength properties were achieved when using fully hydrolyzed PVOH as the foaming agent. Strength properties (both in- and out-of-plane) of samples made using PVOH were better than those made using an anionic foaming agent (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). By adding PVOH binder fibers to the pulp, we were able to further enhance the strength properties of paper and board.",
author = "Jens Gottberg and Timo Lappalainen and Kristian Salminen",
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Polyvinyl alcohol as foaming agent in foam formed paper. / Gottberg, Jens; Lappalainen, Timo; Salminen, Kristian.

In: Tappi Journal, Vol. 18, No. 8, 01.08.2019, p. 475.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polyvinyl alcohol as foaming agent in foam formed paper

AU - Gottberg, Jens

AU - Lappalainen, Timo

AU - Salminen, Kristian

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH or PVA) as a foaming agent in foam formed paper was investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol is a linear, nonionic water-soluble polymer. It has hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts that give it a surface-active character. PVOH is mainly characterized by degree of hydrolysis and molar mass. Degree of hydrolysis is given as mol-% hydroxyl groups on the polymer. Molar mass is measured indirectly by measuring the viscosity of a 4% PVOH solution. The results show that the degree of hydrolysis of PVOH had a strong effect on the foamability of PVOH. Foamability decreased strongly when the degree of hydrolysis increased from 88 to 98 mol-%. The effect of molar mass on foamability was weaker. We saw an increase in foam stability and bubble size with increasing molar mass, but we did not see any effect on maximum air content. PVOH dosage needed to reach >70% air content (F) varied from 2 g/l up to 10.5 g/l, and the lowest addition levels of PVOH needed were achieved with a low molar mass PVOH with a low degree of hydrolysis. The best strength properties were achieved when using fully hydrolyzed PVOH as the foaming agent. Strength properties (both in- and out-of-plane) of samples made using PVOH were better than those made using an anionic foaming agent (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). By adding PVOH binder fibers to the pulp, we were able to further enhance the strength properties of paper and board.

AB - The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH or PVA) as a foaming agent in foam formed paper was investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol is a linear, nonionic water-soluble polymer. It has hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts that give it a surface-active character. PVOH is mainly characterized by degree of hydrolysis and molar mass. Degree of hydrolysis is given as mol-% hydroxyl groups on the polymer. Molar mass is measured indirectly by measuring the viscosity of a 4% PVOH solution. The results show that the degree of hydrolysis of PVOH had a strong effect on the foamability of PVOH. Foamability decreased strongly when the degree of hydrolysis increased from 88 to 98 mol-%. The effect of molar mass on foamability was weaker. We saw an increase in foam stability and bubble size with increasing molar mass, but we did not see any effect on maximum air content. PVOH dosage needed to reach >70% air content (F) varied from 2 g/l up to 10.5 g/l, and the lowest addition levels of PVOH needed were achieved with a low molar mass PVOH with a low degree of hydrolysis. The best strength properties were achieved when using fully hydrolyzed PVOH as the foaming agent. Strength properties (both in- and out-of-plane) of samples made using PVOH were better than those made using an anionic foaming agent (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). By adding PVOH binder fibers to the pulp, we were able to further enhance the strength properties of paper and board.

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