Development of reliable glucose sensors for noninvasive monitoring without interruption or limiting users' mobility is highly desirable, especially for diabetes diagnostics, which requires routine/long-term monitoring. However, their applications are largely limited by the relatively poor stability. Herein, a porous membrane is synthesized for effective enzyme immobilization and it is robustly anchored to the modified nanotextured electrode solid contacts, so as to realize glucose sensors with significantly enhanced sensing stability and mechanical robustness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of utilizing such nanoporous membranes for electrochemical sensor applications, which eliminates enzyme escape and provides a sufficient surface area for molecular/ion diffusion and interactions, thus ensuring the sustainable catalytic activities of the sensors and generating reliable measureable signals during noninvasive monitoring. The as-assembled nanostructured glucose sensors demonstrate reliable long-term stable monitoring with a minimal response drift for up to 20 h, which delivers a remarkable enhancement. Moreover, they can be integrated into a microfluidic sensing patch for noninvasive sweat glucose monitoring. The as-synthesized nanostructured glucose sensors with remarkable stability can inspire developments of various enzymatic biosensors for reliable noninvasive composition analysis and their ultimate applications in predictive clinical diagnostics, personalized health-care monitoring, and chronic diseases management.
- glucose sensor
- nanotextured electrode
- porous enzymatic membrane
- stable and reliable noninvasive monitoring