Positioning in the Arctic Region: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

Anastasia Yastrebova (Corresponding Author), Marko Höyhtyä, Sandrine Boumard, Elena Simona Lohan, Aleksandr Ometov

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)
    122 Downloads (Pure)


    The positioning systems' high accuracy and reliability are crucial enablers for various futureapplications, including autonomous shipping worldwide. It is especially challenging for the Arctic region due to the lower number of visible satellites, severe ionospheric disturbances, scintillation effects, and higher delays than in the non-Arctic and non-Antarctic regions. In regions up North,conventional satellite positioning systems are generally proposed to be utilized, together with other situational awareness systems, to achieve the necessary level of accuracy. This paper provides adetailed review of the current state-of-the-art, satellite-based positioning systems' availability and performance and reports high-level positioning requirements for the oncoming applications. In particular, the comparative study between three Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) constellations is executed to determine whether they are suitable for autonomous vessel navigation in the Arctics' complex environment as the two most significant drivers for a reevaluation of the related satellite constellations. This work analyzes the ongoing research executed in different (inter-) national projects focused on Galileo, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS). Based on the literature review and the simulation campaign, we conclude that all the convectional constellations achieve an accuracy of fewer than three meters in the analyzed Arctic scenarios. It is postulated that other complementary positioning methods should be utilized to improve accuracy beyond this limit. Finally, the study emphasizes existing challenges in the Arctic region regarding the localization and telecommunication capabilities and provides future research directions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number9388713
    Pages (from-to)53964-53978
    JournalIEEE Access
    Publication statusPublished - 2021
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Aerospace simulation
    • Arctic
    • Earth
    • Global navigation satellite system
    • Global Positioning System
    • Marine navigation
    • Radar tracking
    • Satellite broadcasting
    • Satellites
    • Unmanned autonomous vehicles


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