Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects

Katri Juntunen (Corresponding Author), Leo Niskanen, Kirsi Liukkonen, Kaisa Poutanen, Jens Holst, Hannu Mykkänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy food modify the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

Objective: We investigated what factors in grain products affect human glucose and insulin responses and elucidated the mediating mechanisms.

Design: Ten men and 10 women [mean age: 28 ± 1 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.9 ± 0.7] with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. The test products were whole-kernel rye bread, whole-meal rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, dark durum wheat pasta, and wheat bread made from white wheat flour. Paracetamol, a marker of the rate of gastric emptying, was added to the breads during baking. Each product provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served in random order with breakfast (except for the β-glucan rye bread, which was served at the last visit). Fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples were collected at intervals of 15–30 min for 3 h to determine plasma glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), serum insulin, and paracetamol concentrations. The in vitro starch hydrolysis, the structural characteristics (by light microscopy), and the molecular weight of β-glucan in the test products were analyzed.

Results: Glucose responses and the rate of gastric emptying after consumption of the 2 rye breads and pasta did not differ from those after consumption of white wheat bread. However, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 responses, except for GLP-1 responses to the rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, were lower after the consumption of rye breads and pasta than after consumption of white wheat bread.

Conclusions: Postprandial insulin responses to grain products are determined by the form of food and botanical structure rather than by the amount of fiber or the type of cereal in the food. These effects may be mediated through GIP and GLP-1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-262
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume75
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Incretins
Bread
Healthy Volunteers
Insulin
Glucose
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Glucans
Triticum
Gastric Emptying
Acetaminophen
Food
Peptides
Breakfast
Flour
Starch
Meals
Secale
Microscopy
Fasting
Body Mass Index

Keywords

  • rye
  • wheat
  • dietary fibres
  • postprandial period
  • blood glucose
  • insulin
  • incretin
  • glucose-dependent
  • insulinotropic polypeptide
  • glucagon-like-peptide 1
  • gastric emptying

Cite this

Juntunen, Katri ; Niskanen, Leo ; Liukkonen, Kirsi ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Holst, Jens ; Mykkänen, Hannu. / Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2002 ; Vol. 75, No. 2. pp. 254-262.
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abstract = "Background: Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy food modify the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.Objective: We investigated what factors in grain products affect human glucose and insulin responses and elucidated the mediating mechanisms.Design: Ten men and 10 women [mean age: 28 ± 1 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.9 ± 0.7] with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. The test products were whole-kernel rye bread, whole-meal rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, dark durum wheat pasta, and wheat bread made from white wheat flour. Paracetamol, a marker of the rate of gastric emptying, was added to the breads during baking. Each product provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served in random order with breakfast (except for the β-glucan rye bread, which was served at the last visit). Fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples were collected at intervals of 15–30 min for 3 h to determine plasma glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), serum insulin, and paracetamol concentrations. The in vitro starch hydrolysis, the structural characteristics (by light microscopy), and the molecular weight of β-glucan in the test products were analyzed.Results: Glucose responses and the rate of gastric emptying after consumption of the 2 rye breads and pasta did not differ from those after consumption of white wheat bread. However, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 responses, except for GLP-1 responses to the rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, were lower after the consumption of rye breads and pasta than after consumption of white wheat bread.Conclusions: Postprandial insulin responses to grain products are determined by the form of food and botanical structure rather than by the amount of fiber or the type of cereal in the food. These effects may be mediated through GIP and GLP-1.",
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author = "Katri Juntunen and Leo Niskanen and Kirsi Liukkonen and Kaisa Poutanen and Jens Holst and Hannu Mykk{\"a}nen",
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Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. / Juntunen, Katri (Corresponding Author); Niskanen, Leo; Liukkonen, Kirsi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Holst, Jens; Mykkänen, Hannu.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2002, p. 254-262.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects

AU - Juntunen, Katri

AU - Niskanen, Leo

AU - Liukkonen, Kirsi

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Holst, Jens

AU - Mykkänen, Hannu

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Background: Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy food modify the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.Objective: We investigated what factors in grain products affect human glucose and insulin responses and elucidated the mediating mechanisms.Design: Ten men and 10 women [mean age: 28 ± 1 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.9 ± 0.7] with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. The test products were whole-kernel rye bread, whole-meal rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, dark durum wheat pasta, and wheat bread made from white wheat flour. Paracetamol, a marker of the rate of gastric emptying, was added to the breads during baking. Each product provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served in random order with breakfast (except for the β-glucan rye bread, which was served at the last visit). Fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples were collected at intervals of 15–30 min for 3 h to determine plasma glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), serum insulin, and paracetamol concentrations. The in vitro starch hydrolysis, the structural characteristics (by light microscopy), and the molecular weight of β-glucan in the test products were analyzed.Results: Glucose responses and the rate of gastric emptying after consumption of the 2 rye breads and pasta did not differ from those after consumption of white wheat bread. However, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 responses, except for GLP-1 responses to the rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, were lower after the consumption of rye breads and pasta than after consumption of white wheat bread.Conclusions: Postprandial insulin responses to grain products are determined by the form of food and botanical structure rather than by the amount of fiber or the type of cereal in the food. These effects may be mediated through GIP and GLP-1.

AB - Background: Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy food modify the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.Objective: We investigated what factors in grain products affect human glucose and insulin responses and elucidated the mediating mechanisms.Design: Ten men and 10 women [mean age: 28 ± 1 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.9 ± 0.7] with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. The test products were whole-kernel rye bread, whole-meal rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, dark durum wheat pasta, and wheat bread made from white wheat flour. Paracetamol, a marker of the rate of gastric emptying, was added to the breads during baking. Each product provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served in random order with breakfast (except for the β-glucan rye bread, which was served at the last visit). Fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples were collected at intervals of 15–30 min for 3 h to determine plasma glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), serum insulin, and paracetamol concentrations. The in vitro starch hydrolysis, the structural characteristics (by light microscopy), and the molecular weight of β-glucan in the test products were analyzed.Results: Glucose responses and the rate of gastric emptying after consumption of the 2 rye breads and pasta did not differ from those after consumption of white wheat bread. However, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 responses, except for GLP-1 responses to the rye bread containing oat β-glucan concentrate, were lower after the consumption of rye breads and pasta than after consumption of white wheat bread.Conclusions: Postprandial insulin responses to grain products are determined by the form of food and botanical structure rather than by the amount of fiber or the type of cereal in the food. These effects may be mediated through GIP and GLP-1.

KW - rye

KW - wheat

KW - dietary fibres

KW - postprandial period

KW - blood glucose

KW - insulin

KW - incretin

KW - glucose-dependent

KW - insulinotropic polypeptide

KW - glucagon-like-peptide 1

KW - gastric emptying

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/75.2.254

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/75.2.254

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 254

EP - 262

JO - The American journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -