Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics

Joonas Pekkarinen, Antti Salminen, Veli Kujanpää, Jarmo Ilonen, Lasse Lensu, Heikki Kälviäinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)032007-1 - 032007-12
JournalJournal of Laser Applications
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Laser cladding
Powders
Optics
optics
Scanning
scanning
lasers
Vaporization
Dilution
gas flow
Flow of gases
dilution
flow velocity
Flow rate
laser beams
frequency scanning
Steel
Laser radiation

Keywords

  • powder cloud
  • process stability
  • laser cladding
  • scanning frequency
  • machine vision

Cite this

Pekkarinen, J., Salminen, A., Kujanpää, V., Ilonen, J., Lensu, L., & Kälviäinen, H. (2016). Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. Journal of Laser Applications, 28(3), 032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598
Pekkarinen, Joonas ; Salminen, Antti ; Kujanpää, Veli ; Ilonen, Jarmo ; Lensu, Lasse ; Kälviäinen, Heikki. / Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. In: Journal of Laser Applications. 2016 ; Vol. 28, No. 3. pp. 032007-1 - 032007-12.
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abstract = "Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.",
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Pekkarinen, J, Salminen, A, Kujanpää, V, Ilonen, J, Lensu, L & Kälviäinen, H 2016, 'Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics', Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598

Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. / Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti; Kujanpää, Veli; Ilonen, Jarmo; Lensu, Lasse; Kälviäinen, Heikki.

In: Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2016, p. 032007-1 - 032007-12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Pekkarinen, Joonas

AU - Salminen, Antti

AU - Kujanpää, Veli

AU - Ilonen, Jarmo

AU - Lensu, Lasse

AU - Kälviäinen, Heikki

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.

AB - Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.

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Pekkarinen J, Salminen A, Kujanpää V, Ilonen J, Lensu L, Kälviäinen H. Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. Journal of Laser Applications. 2016;28(3):032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598