Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics

Joonas Pekkarinen, Antti Salminen, Veli Kujanpää, Jarmo Ilonen, Lasse Lensu, Heikki Kälviäinen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)032007-1 - 032007-12
    JournalJournal of Laser Applications
    Volume28
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Laser cladding
    Powders
    Optics
    optics
    Scanning
    scanning
    lasers
    Vaporization
    Dilution
    gas flow
    Flow of gases
    dilution
    flow velocity
    Flow rate
    laser beams
    frequency scanning
    Steel
    Laser radiation

    Keywords

    • powder cloud
    • process stability
    • laser cladding
    • scanning frequency
    • machine vision

    Cite this

    Pekkarinen, J., Salminen, A., Kujanpää, V., Ilonen, J., Lensu, L., & Kälviäinen, H. (2016). Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. Journal of Laser Applications, 28(3), 032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598
    Pekkarinen, Joonas ; Salminen, Antti ; Kujanpää, Veli ; Ilonen, Jarmo ; Lensu, Lasse ; Kälviäinen, Heikki. / Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. In: Journal of Laser Applications. 2016 ; Vol. 28, No. 3. pp. 032007-1 - 032007-12.
    @article{170bb378aaef451abe1cc7273662518f,
    title = "Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics",
    abstract = "Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.",
    keywords = "powder cloud, process stability, laser cladding, scanning frequency, machine vision",
    author = "Joonas Pekkarinen and Antti Salminen and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a} and Jarmo Ilonen and Lasse Lensu and Heikki K{\"a}lvi{\"a}inen",
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    Pekkarinen, J, Salminen, A, Kujanpää, V, Ilonen, J, Lensu, L & Kälviäinen, H 2016, 'Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics', Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598

    Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. / Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti; Kujanpää, Veli; Ilonen, Jarmo; Lensu, Lasse; Kälviäinen, Heikki.

    In: Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2016, p. 032007-1 - 032007-12.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Pekkarinen, Joonas

    AU - Salminen, Antti

    AU - Kujanpää, Veli

    AU - Ilonen, Jarmo

    AU - Lensu, Lasse

    AU - Kälviäinen, Heikki

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.

    AB - Powder feeding is one of the single most important parameter that defines a qualitative outcome of the cladding process. This study focuses on how powder feeding angle and powder carrying gas flow rate effects on the powder cloud behavior in laser cladding with scanning optics. Focus of this study is to provide the knowledge on how scanned laser beam affects the powder cloud and what kind of phenomena's can occur during cladding process. In this study, powder feeding angles from 40 to 70 degrees were tested with powder feeding gas flow rates of 3 and 6 l/min and with laser scanning frequencies ranging from 80 to 150 Hz. Powder material used was 316L, and the substrate material was low alloyed steel. The results showed that the stability of the powder cloud was highly dependent on the tested parameters. At a steep powder feeding angle, the powder cloud under laser radiation was strongly vaporized, emitting bright visible light. However at gently sloping powder feeding angle the powder cloud behavior was more stable; i.e. less or no vaporization was noticed, and the emitted light was fainter. Also, a direct correlation between the vaporization of the powder cloud and the increase of dilution was noticed. It was determined to be cause of vapor flow disturbing the powder feeding into the melt pool and thereby increasing dilution.

    KW - powder cloud

    KW - process stability

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    KW - scanning frequency

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    SP - 032007-1 - 032007-12

    JO - Journal of Laser Applications

    JF - Journal of Laser Applications

    SN - 1042-346X

    IS - 3

    ER -

    Pekkarinen J, Salminen A, Kujanpää V, Ilonen J, Lensu L, Kälviäinen H. Powder cloud behaviour in laser cladding using scanning optics. Journal of Laser Applications. 2016;28(3):032007-1 - 032007-12. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4947598