Power balance control and dimensioning of a hybrid off-grid energy system for a Nordic climate townhouse

Altti Meriläinen (Corresponding Author), Jan Henri Montonen, Jeremias Hopsu, Antti Kosonen, Tuomo Lindh, Jero Ahola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates conversion of a Nordic oil-heated townhouse into carbon-neutral by different energy efficiency (EE) improvements and an off-grid system including solar photovoltaics (PV), wind power, and battery and hydrogen energy storage systems (BESS and HESS). A heat-pump-based heating system including waste heat recovery (WHR) from the HESS and an off-grid electrical system are dimensioned for the building by applying models developed in MATLAB and Microsoft Excel to study the life cycle costs (LCC). The work uses a measured electrical load profile, and the heat generation of the new heating system and the power generation are simulated by commercial software. It is shown that the EE improvements and WHR from the HESS have a positive effect on the dimensioning of the off-grid system, and the LCC can be reduced by up to €2 million. With the EE improvements and WHR, the component dimensioning can be reduced by 22%–41% and 13%–51% on average, respectively. WHR can cover up to 57% of the building's annual heat demand, and full-power dimensioning of the heat pump is not reasonable when WHR is applied. Wind power was found to be very relevant in the Nordic conditions, reducing the LCC by 32%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-324
Number of pages15
JournalRenewable Energy
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Energy efficiency
  • Heating system
  • Hydrogen energy storage system (HESS)
  • Optimization
  • Solar photovoltaics (PV)
  • Wind power


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