Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

Timo Dönsberg, Farshid Manoocheri, Meelis Sildoja, Mikko Juntunen, Hele Savin, Esa Tuovinen, Hannu Ronkainen, Mika Prunnila, Mikko Merimaa, Chi Kwong Tang, Jarle Gran, Ingmar Müller, Lutz Werner, Bernard Rougié, Alicia Pons, Marek Smîd, Péter Gál, Lapo Lolli, Giorgio Brida, Maria Luisa Rastello & 1 others Erkki Ikonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)821-836
Number of pages16
JournalMetrologia
Volume54
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Photodiodes
Detectors
Silicon
Substrates
Atomic layer deposition
Dark currents
Charge carriers
Silicon wafers
Deposits
Doping (additives)
Availability
Semiconductor materials
Wavelength
Oxides

Keywords

  • induced junction
  • primary standard
  • radiant flux
  • radiometry
  • silicon photodetector

Cite this

Dönsberg, T., Manoocheri, F., Sildoja, M., Juntunen, M., Savin, H., Tuovinen, E., ... Ikonen, E. (2017). Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. Metrologia, 54(6), 821-836. https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed
Dönsberg, Timo ; Manoocheri, Farshid ; Sildoja, Meelis ; Juntunen, Mikko ; Savin, Hele ; Tuovinen, Esa ; Ronkainen, Hannu ; Prunnila, Mika ; Merimaa, Mikko ; Tang, Chi Kwong ; Gran, Jarle ; Müller, Ingmar ; Werner, Lutz ; Rougié, Bernard ; Pons, Alicia ; Smîd, Marek ; Gál, Péter ; Lolli, Lapo ; Brida, Giorgio ; Rastello, Maria Luisa ; Ikonen, Erkki. / Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. In: Metrologia. 2017 ; Vol. 54, No. 6. pp. 821-836.
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abstract = "The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.",
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Dönsberg, T, Manoocheri, F, Sildoja, M, Juntunen, M, Savin, H, Tuovinen, E, Ronkainen, H, Prunnila, M, Merimaa, M, Tang, CK, Gran, J, Müller, I, Werner, L, Rougié, B, Pons, A, Smîd, M, Gál, P, Lolli, L, Brida, G, Rastello, ML & Ikonen, E 2017, 'Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes', Metrologia, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 821-836. https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed

Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. / Dönsberg, Timo; Manoocheri, Farshid; Sildoja, Meelis; Juntunen, Mikko; Savin, Hele; Tuovinen, Esa; Ronkainen, Hannu; Prunnila, Mika; Merimaa, Mikko; Tang, Chi Kwong; Gran, Jarle; Müller, Ingmar; Werner, Lutz; Rougié, Bernard; Pons, Alicia; Smîd, Marek; Gál, Péter; Lolli, Lapo; Brida, Giorgio; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ikonen, Erkki.

In: Metrologia, Vol. 54, No. 6, 04.10.2017, p. 821-836.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

AU - Dönsberg, Timo

AU - Manoocheri, Farshid

AU - Sildoja, Meelis

AU - Juntunen, Mikko

AU - Savin, Hele

AU - Tuovinen, Esa

AU - Ronkainen, Hannu

AU - Prunnila, Mika

AU - Merimaa, Mikko

AU - Tang, Chi Kwong

AU - Gran, Jarle

AU - Müller, Ingmar

AU - Werner, Lutz

AU - Rougié, Bernard

AU - Pons, Alicia

AU - Smîd, Marek

AU - Gál, Péter

AU - Lolli, Lapo

AU - Brida, Giorgio

AU - Rastello, Maria Luisa

AU - Ikonen, Erkki

PY - 2017/10/4

Y1 - 2017/10/4

N2 - The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.

AB - The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.

KW - induced junction

KW - primary standard

KW - radiant flux

KW - radiometry

KW - silicon photodetector

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Dönsberg T, Manoocheri F, Sildoja M, Juntunen M, Savin H, Tuovinen E et al. Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes. Metrologia. 2017 Oct 4;54(6):821-836. https://doi.org/10.1088/1681-7575/aa85ed