Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees

Henna Lyhykäinen, Harri Mäkinen, Annikki Mäkelä, Arto Usenius

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

    Fingerprint

    lumber grades
    Pinus sylvestris
    stems
    sawing
    sawmills
    byproducts
    tree crown
    stand management
    stem form
    pulpwood
    sawdust
    timber production
    value added
    branches
    tree and stand measurements
    thinning (plants)
    growth models
    bark
    prediction

    Keywords

    • Pinus sylvestris
    • Process-based growth model
    • Product recovery
    • Sawing simulations
    • Timber products

    Cite this

    Lyhykäinen, H., Mäkinen, H., Mäkelä, A., & Usenius, A. (2009). Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees.
    Lyhykäinen, Henna ; Mäkinen, Harri ; Mäkelä, Annikki ; Usenius, Arto. / Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. 2009.
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    abstract = "The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.",
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    Lyhykäinen, H, Mäkinen, H, Mäkelä, A & Usenius, A 2009, Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees.

    Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. / Lyhykäinen, Henna; Mäkinen, Harri; Mäkelä, Annikki; Usenius, Arto.

    2009.

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees

    AU - Lyhykäinen, Henna

    AU - Mäkinen, Harri

    AU - Mäkelä, Annikki

    AU - Usenius, Arto

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.

    AB - The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.

    KW - Pinus sylvestris

    KW - Process-based growth model

    KW - Product recovery

    KW - Sawing simulations

    KW - Timber products

    M3 - Report

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    ER -

    Lyhykäinen H, Mäkinen H, Mäkelä A, Usenius A. Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. 2009.