Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees

Henna Lyhykäinen, Harri Mäkinen, Annikki Mäkelä, Arto Usenius

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Fingerprint

lumber grades
Pinus sylvestris
stems
sawing
sawmills
byproducts
tree crown
stand management
stem form
pulpwood
sawdust
timber production
value added
branches
tree and stand measurements
thinning (plants)
growth models
bark
prediction

Keywords

  • Pinus sylvestris
  • Process-based growth model
  • Product recovery
  • Sawing simulations
  • Timber products

Cite this

Lyhykäinen, H., Mäkinen, H., Mäkelä, A., & Usenius, A. (2009). Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees.
Lyhykäinen, Henna ; Mäkinen, Harri ; Mäkelä, Annikki ; Usenius, Arto. / Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. 2009.
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Lyhykäinen, H, Mäkinen, H, Mäkelä, A & Usenius, A 2009, Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees.

Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. / Lyhykäinen, Henna; Mäkinen, Harri; Mäkelä, Annikki; Usenius, Arto.

2009.

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees

AU - Lyhykäinen, Henna

AU - Mäkinen, Harri

AU - Mäkelä, Annikki

AU - Usenius, Arto

PY - 2009

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.

AB - The purpose of this study was to develop models for estimating yields and grades of lumber, as well as by-products, of individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems using stem and crown dimensions as explanatory variables. The process-based growth model, PipeQual, which provides information about stem form and branch properties, was used to generate the material for analysis. The model was used to predict the 3D structure of Scots pine stems in thinning regimes of varying intensity and rotation periods. The generated stems were sawn using the WoodCim sawing simulator and the yields and grades of the individual sawn pieces, as well as by-products, were recorded. The sawn timber was classified on A, B, C and D-grades for side and center boards separately (in accordance with Finnish export rules). By-products were pulpwood, sawmill chips, sawdust, and bark. The response variables were formulated as cumulative proportions of the total volume of each stem. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data, and the best combination of the explanatory variables was found to be living crown height and the natural logarithm of diameter at breast height. The models were tested against simulated sawing of actual measured Scots pine stems and predictions for larger stems were found to be more biased than those used in model building. The developed approach integrates wood production and the conversion chain. The models can be used in stand management optimization for comparing different management options, e.g., on a value-added basis from the sawmill's point of view.

KW - Pinus sylvestris

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Lyhykäinen H, Mäkinen H, Mäkelä A, Usenius A. Predicting lumber grade and by-product yields for standing scots pine trees. 2009.