Predictive model for the prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds: Dissertation

    Research output: ThesisDissertation

    Abstract

    This thesis studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal (WM). The experiments were concerned with heavy-restraint Y- and U-Groove multipass cracking tests of shielded-metal arc (SMAW) and submerged-arc (SAW) weld metals. Results of tensile tests, hardness surveys, weld residual stress measurements and microstructural investigations are discussed. The analytical phase comprised numerical calculations for analysing the interactions between crack-controlling factors. The objectives were: (i) the assessment of WM hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack-No Crack boundary conditions in terms of 'safe line' description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and (ii) to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T0/Ti for the avoidance of cracking.

    Hydrogen cracking occurred predominantly in high strength weld metals of Rp0.2 ≈ 580-900 MPa. At intermediate strengths of Rp0.2 ≈ 500-550 MPa, cracking took place in the cases where the holding time from welding to NDT inspection was prolonged to 7 days. Low strength WMs of Rp0.2 ≤ 480 MPa did not exhibit cracking under any conditions examined. Cracking occurrence was, above all, governed by WM tensile strength, weld diffusible hydrogen and weld residual stresses amounting to the yield strength. The appearance of cracking vanished when transferring from 40 to 6 mm thick welds. The implications of the holding time were more significant than anticipated previously. A period of 16 hrs in accordance with SFS-EN 1011 appeared much too short for thick multipass welds. Interpass time and heat input showed no measurable effect on cracking sensitivity, hence being of secondary importance. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content Hcr corresponding to the Crack-No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal Pcm, yield strength Rp0.2 or weld metal maximum hardness HV5(max). For the calculation of safe T0/Ti estimates, a formula incorporating: (i) WM strength as a linear function of either weld carbon equivalent CET or weld HV5(max), (ii) weld build-up thickness aw in the form of tanh expression and (iii) weld diffusible hydrogen HD in terms of a combined [ln / power law] expression was found descriptive.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • University of Oulu
    Award date15 Nov 2003
    Place of PublicationOulu
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs951-42-7180-7
    Electronic ISBNs951-42-7181-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2003
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

    Fingerprint

    Welds
    Hydrogen
    Metals
    Cracks
    Yield stress
    Residual stresses
    Hardness
    Stress measurement
    Nondestructive examination
    Welding
    Tensile strength
    Inspection

    Keywords

    • cold cracking
    • hight-strength steels
    • hydrogen cracking
    • multipass welding
    • weld metal cracking

    Cite this

    @phdthesis{9b571adfd7d3469f8c415e79f8fe3771,
    title = "Predictive model for the prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds: Dissertation",
    abstract = "This thesis studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal (WM). The experiments were concerned with heavy-restraint Y- and U-Groove multipass cracking tests of shielded-metal arc (SMAW) and submerged-arc (SAW) weld metals. Results of tensile tests, hardness surveys, weld residual stress measurements and microstructural investigations are discussed. The analytical phase comprised numerical calculations for analysing the interactions between crack-controlling factors. The objectives were: (i) the assessment of WM hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack-No Crack boundary conditions in terms of 'safe line' description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and (ii) to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T0/Ti for the avoidance of cracking.Hydrogen cracking occurred predominantly in high strength weld metals of Rp0.2 ≈ 580-900 MPa. At intermediate strengths of Rp0.2 ≈ 500-550 MPa, cracking took place in the cases where the holding time from welding to NDT inspection was prolonged to 7 days. Low strength WMs of Rp0.2 ≤ 480 MPa did not exhibit cracking under any conditions examined. Cracking occurrence was, above all, governed by WM tensile strength, weld diffusible hydrogen and weld residual stresses amounting to the yield strength. The appearance of cracking vanished when transferring from 40 to 6 mm thick welds. The implications of the holding time were more significant than anticipated previously. A period of 16 hrs in accordance with SFS-EN 1011 appeared much too short for thick multipass welds. Interpass time and heat input showed no measurable effect on cracking sensitivity, hence being of secondary importance. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content Hcr corresponding to the Crack-No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal Pcm, yield strength Rp0.2 or weld metal maximum hardness HV5(max). For the calculation of safe T0/Ti estimates, a formula incorporating: (i) WM strength as a linear function of either weld carbon equivalent CET or weld HV5(max), (ii) weld build-up thickness aw in the form of tanh expression and (iii) weld diffusible hydrogen HD in terms of a combined [ln / power law] expression was found descriptive.",
    keywords = "cold cracking, hight-strength steels, hydrogen cracking, multipass welding, weld metal cracking",
    author = "Pekka Nevasmaa",
    note = "TUO Project code: H8SU00850 212 p. + 11 Apps.",
    year = "2003",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "951-42-7180-7",
    series = "Acta Universitatis Ouluensis C: Technica",
    publisher = "University of Oulu",
    address = "Finland",
    school = "University of Oulu",

    }

    TY - THES

    T1 - Predictive model for the prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds

    T2 - Dissertation

    AU - Nevasmaa, Pekka

    N1 - TUO Project code: H8SU00850 212 p. + 11 Apps.

    PY - 2003

    Y1 - 2003

    N2 - This thesis studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal (WM). The experiments were concerned with heavy-restraint Y- and U-Groove multipass cracking tests of shielded-metal arc (SMAW) and submerged-arc (SAW) weld metals. Results of tensile tests, hardness surveys, weld residual stress measurements and microstructural investigations are discussed. The analytical phase comprised numerical calculations for analysing the interactions between crack-controlling factors. The objectives were: (i) the assessment of WM hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack-No Crack boundary conditions in terms of 'safe line' description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and (ii) to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T0/Ti for the avoidance of cracking.Hydrogen cracking occurred predominantly in high strength weld metals of Rp0.2 ≈ 580-900 MPa. At intermediate strengths of Rp0.2 ≈ 500-550 MPa, cracking took place in the cases where the holding time from welding to NDT inspection was prolonged to 7 days. Low strength WMs of Rp0.2 ≤ 480 MPa did not exhibit cracking under any conditions examined. Cracking occurrence was, above all, governed by WM tensile strength, weld diffusible hydrogen and weld residual stresses amounting to the yield strength. The appearance of cracking vanished when transferring from 40 to 6 mm thick welds. The implications of the holding time were more significant than anticipated previously. A period of 16 hrs in accordance with SFS-EN 1011 appeared much too short for thick multipass welds. Interpass time and heat input showed no measurable effect on cracking sensitivity, hence being of secondary importance. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content Hcr corresponding to the Crack-No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal Pcm, yield strength Rp0.2 or weld metal maximum hardness HV5(max). For the calculation of safe T0/Ti estimates, a formula incorporating: (i) WM strength as a linear function of either weld carbon equivalent CET or weld HV5(max), (ii) weld build-up thickness aw in the form of tanh expression and (iii) weld diffusible hydrogen HD in terms of a combined [ln / power law] expression was found descriptive.

    AB - This thesis studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal (WM). The experiments were concerned with heavy-restraint Y- and U-Groove multipass cracking tests of shielded-metal arc (SMAW) and submerged-arc (SAW) weld metals. Results of tensile tests, hardness surveys, weld residual stress measurements and microstructural investigations are discussed. The analytical phase comprised numerical calculations for analysing the interactions between crack-controlling factors. The objectives were: (i) the assessment of WM hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack-No Crack boundary conditions in terms of 'safe line' description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and (ii) to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T0/Ti for the avoidance of cracking.Hydrogen cracking occurred predominantly in high strength weld metals of Rp0.2 ≈ 580-900 MPa. At intermediate strengths of Rp0.2 ≈ 500-550 MPa, cracking took place in the cases where the holding time from welding to NDT inspection was prolonged to 7 days. Low strength WMs of Rp0.2 ≤ 480 MPa did not exhibit cracking under any conditions examined. Cracking occurrence was, above all, governed by WM tensile strength, weld diffusible hydrogen and weld residual stresses amounting to the yield strength. The appearance of cracking vanished when transferring from 40 to 6 mm thick welds. The implications of the holding time were more significant than anticipated previously. A period of 16 hrs in accordance with SFS-EN 1011 appeared much too short for thick multipass welds. Interpass time and heat input showed no measurable effect on cracking sensitivity, hence being of secondary importance. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content Hcr corresponding to the Crack-No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal Pcm, yield strength Rp0.2 or weld metal maximum hardness HV5(max). For the calculation of safe T0/Ti estimates, a formula incorporating: (i) WM strength as a linear function of either weld carbon equivalent CET or weld HV5(max), (ii) weld build-up thickness aw in the form of tanh expression and (iii) weld diffusible hydrogen HD in terms of a combined [ln / power law] expression was found descriptive.

    KW - cold cracking

    KW - hight-strength steels

    KW - hydrogen cracking

    KW - multipass welding

    KW - weld metal cracking

    M3 - Dissertation

    SN - 951-42-7180-7

    T3 - Acta Universitatis Ouluensis C: Technica

    PB - University of Oulu

    CY - Oulu

    ER -