Preparation and characterisation of alfa-methylstyrene-butadiene latexes for paper coating applications

Antero Laitinen (Corresponding Author), Martti Alkio, Ulla Forsström, Ali Harlin, Harri Heikkinen, Juha Kaunisto, Annaleena Kokko, Hille Rautkoski, Lea Räsänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how α-methylstyrene (AMS) can replace styrene in preparing styrene–butadiene (SB) type latexes and to compare the properties of the paper coating of the prepared α-methylstyrene–butadiene emulsion with the commercial styrene–butadiene latex reference sample. A lot of work is nowadays being conducted on different biorefinery concepts replacing fossil oil with biomass based raw materials due to the expected rise of the fossil oil cost. Aromatics can in principle be produced from renewable raw materials, such as lignin, sugars and terpenes for example. The potential methods include thermochemical conversions, catalytic fast pyrolysis, metabolic engineering, catalytic aromatisation and dehydrogenation among others. Terpenes, such as α-limonene and pinene, are possible sources of aromatics, and they can indeed be catalytically converted to p-cymene. Industrial hydrodealkylation and disproportionation processes developed by major petrochemical companies can further convert p-cymene to BTX aromatics or simultaneously dehydrogenate the alkyl chain of p-cymene to styrenic monomers such as α-methylstyrene. Based on the measured paper properties for uncalendered and calendered coated samples, AMS proved to be adequate to replace the oil based styrene in commercial reference SB latexes. Even though the emulsion polymerisation for the α-methylstyrene–butadiene latex was not optimised, almost all tested properties were at least equally good as in the commercial reference sample. α-Methylstyrene containing coating colours had slightly higher viscosity than the other coating colours. Coating colours containing α-methylstyrene seems to have an improved water retention compared to the commercial reference styrene–butadiene latex coating colour and the laboratory prepared styrene–butadiene coating colour. The paper coated with the commercial reference latex containing coating colour was less porous than the other coated papers. Despite of that, both dry and wet surface strength were at least equally good as in the case of the commercial reference latex. The results are promising when thinking of the future development of the bio-based latexes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-419
Number of pages8
JournalProgress in Organic Coatings
Volume75
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

alpha-methylstyrol
Coating techniques
Latex
Latexes
Butadiene
Color
Coatings
Terpenes
Oils
Styrene
Raw materials
Metabolic engineering
Aromatization
1,3-butadiene
Lignin
Emulsion polymerization
Dehydrogenation
Emulsions

Keywords

  • Alfa-methylstyrene
  • latexes
  • paper coating

Cite this

@article{5841e0067f1f4d32942a66c1f03e4275,
title = "Preparation and characterisation of alfa-methylstyrene-butadiene latexes for paper coating applications",
abstract = "The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how α-methylstyrene (AMS) can replace styrene in preparing styrene–butadiene (SB) type latexes and to compare the properties of the paper coating of the prepared α-methylstyrene–butadiene emulsion with the commercial styrene–butadiene latex reference sample. A lot of work is nowadays being conducted on different biorefinery concepts replacing fossil oil with biomass based raw materials due to the expected rise of the fossil oil cost. Aromatics can in principle be produced from renewable raw materials, such as lignin, sugars and terpenes for example. The potential methods include thermochemical conversions, catalytic fast pyrolysis, metabolic engineering, catalytic aromatisation and dehydrogenation among others. Terpenes, such as α-limonene and pinene, are possible sources of aromatics, and they can indeed be catalytically converted to p-cymene. Industrial hydrodealkylation and disproportionation processes developed by major petrochemical companies can further convert p-cymene to BTX aromatics or simultaneously dehydrogenate the alkyl chain of p-cymene to styrenic monomers such as α-methylstyrene. Based on the measured paper properties for uncalendered and calendered coated samples, AMS proved to be adequate to replace the oil based styrene in commercial reference SB latexes. Even though the emulsion polymerisation for the α-methylstyrene–butadiene latex was not optimised, almost all tested properties were at least equally good as in the commercial reference sample. α-Methylstyrene containing coating colours had slightly higher viscosity than the other coating colours. Coating colours containing α-methylstyrene seems to have an improved water retention compared to the commercial reference styrene–butadiene latex coating colour and the laboratory prepared styrene–butadiene coating colour. The paper coated with the commercial reference latex containing coating colour was less porous than the other coated papers. Despite of that, both dry and wet surface strength were at least equally good as in the case of the commercial reference latex. The results are promising when thinking of the future development of the bio-based latexes.",
keywords = "Alfa-methylstyrene, latexes, paper coating",
author = "Antero Laitinen and Martti Alkio and Ulla Forsstr{\"o}m and Ali Harlin and Harri Heikkinen and Juha Kaunisto and Annaleena Kokko and Hille Rautkoski and Lea R{\"a}s{\"a}nen",
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language = "English",
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Preparation and characterisation of alfa-methylstyrene-butadiene latexes for paper coating applications. / Laitinen, Antero (Corresponding Author); Alkio, Martti; Forsström, Ulla; Harlin, Ali; Heikkinen, Harri; Kaunisto, Juha; Kokko, Annaleena; Rautkoski, Hille; Räsänen, Lea.

In: Progress in Organic Coatings, Vol. 75, No. 4, 2012, p. 411-419.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Preparation and characterisation of alfa-methylstyrene-butadiene latexes for paper coating applications

AU - Laitinen, Antero

AU - Alkio, Martti

AU - Forsström, Ulla

AU - Harlin, Ali

AU - Heikkinen, Harri

AU - Kaunisto, Juha

AU - Kokko, Annaleena

AU - Rautkoski, Hille

AU - Räsänen, Lea

N1 - Project code: 82227

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how α-methylstyrene (AMS) can replace styrene in preparing styrene–butadiene (SB) type latexes and to compare the properties of the paper coating of the prepared α-methylstyrene–butadiene emulsion with the commercial styrene–butadiene latex reference sample. A lot of work is nowadays being conducted on different biorefinery concepts replacing fossil oil with biomass based raw materials due to the expected rise of the fossil oil cost. Aromatics can in principle be produced from renewable raw materials, such as lignin, sugars and terpenes for example. The potential methods include thermochemical conversions, catalytic fast pyrolysis, metabolic engineering, catalytic aromatisation and dehydrogenation among others. Terpenes, such as α-limonene and pinene, are possible sources of aromatics, and they can indeed be catalytically converted to p-cymene. Industrial hydrodealkylation and disproportionation processes developed by major petrochemical companies can further convert p-cymene to BTX aromatics or simultaneously dehydrogenate the alkyl chain of p-cymene to styrenic monomers such as α-methylstyrene. Based on the measured paper properties for uncalendered and calendered coated samples, AMS proved to be adequate to replace the oil based styrene in commercial reference SB latexes. Even though the emulsion polymerisation for the α-methylstyrene–butadiene latex was not optimised, almost all tested properties were at least equally good as in the commercial reference sample. α-Methylstyrene containing coating colours had slightly higher viscosity than the other coating colours. Coating colours containing α-methylstyrene seems to have an improved water retention compared to the commercial reference styrene–butadiene latex coating colour and the laboratory prepared styrene–butadiene coating colour. The paper coated with the commercial reference latex containing coating colour was less porous than the other coated papers. Despite of that, both dry and wet surface strength were at least equally good as in the case of the commercial reference latex. The results are promising when thinking of the future development of the bio-based latexes.

AB - The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how α-methylstyrene (AMS) can replace styrene in preparing styrene–butadiene (SB) type latexes and to compare the properties of the paper coating of the prepared α-methylstyrene–butadiene emulsion with the commercial styrene–butadiene latex reference sample. A lot of work is nowadays being conducted on different biorefinery concepts replacing fossil oil with biomass based raw materials due to the expected rise of the fossil oil cost. Aromatics can in principle be produced from renewable raw materials, such as lignin, sugars and terpenes for example. The potential methods include thermochemical conversions, catalytic fast pyrolysis, metabolic engineering, catalytic aromatisation and dehydrogenation among others. Terpenes, such as α-limonene and pinene, are possible sources of aromatics, and they can indeed be catalytically converted to p-cymene. Industrial hydrodealkylation and disproportionation processes developed by major petrochemical companies can further convert p-cymene to BTX aromatics or simultaneously dehydrogenate the alkyl chain of p-cymene to styrenic monomers such as α-methylstyrene. Based on the measured paper properties for uncalendered and calendered coated samples, AMS proved to be adequate to replace the oil based styrene in commercial reference SB latexes. Even though the emulsion polymerisation for the α-methylstyrene–butadiene latex was not optimised, almost all tested properties were at least equally good as in the commercial reference sample. α-Methylstyrene containing coating colours had slightly higher viscosity than the other coating colours. Coating colours containing α-methylstyrene seems to have an improved water retention compared to the commercial reference styrene–butadiene latex coating colour and the laboratory prepared styrene–butadiene coating colour. The paper coated with the commercial reference latex containing coating colour was less porous than the other coated papers. Despite of that, both dry and wet surface strength were at least equally good as in the case of the commercial reference latex. The results are promising when thinking of the future development of the bio-based latexes.

KW - Alfa-methylstyrene

KW - latexes

KW - paper coating

U2 - 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2012.07.004

DO - 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2012.07.004

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 411

EP - 419

JO - Progress in Organic Coatings

JF - Progress in Organic Coatings

SN - 0300-9440

IS - 4

ER -