Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process

Markku Leskelä, Lauri Niinistö, Pentti Niemelä, Erja Nykänen, Pekka Soininen, Marja Tiitta, Jouko Vähäkangas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Preparation of lead sulfide thin films on different substrates by the Atomic Layer Epitaxy process has been studied. Sulfur source was in all experiments H2S, but as lead source the following compounds were tested: bromide, iodide and acetate as well as thd (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and diethyldithiocarbamate chelates. The last complex gave the highest growth rate. The growth experiments were carried out at 300–350°C and the film thickness varied between 0.1 and 1 μm. The films were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, and by photoconductivity and Hall measurements.
The results showed that the films were polycrystalline and randomly oriented. The conductivity was p-type and the carrier concentration and mobility were comparable with those found in films deposited by traditional chemical methods.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1457-1459
JournalVacuum
Volume41
Issue number4-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Atomic layer epitaxy
lead sulfides
atomic layer epitaxy
Lead
Thin films
preparation
thin films
Ditiocarb
Carrier mobility
Photoconductivity
Iodides
Bromides
Sulfur
chelates
photoconductivity
iodides
Carrier concentration
Film thickness
bromides
acetates

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Leskelä, M., Niinistö, L., Niemelä, P., Nykänen, E., Soininen, P., Tiitta, M., & Vähäkangas, J. (1990). Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process. Vacuum, 41(4-6), 1457-1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-207X(90)93989-V
Leskelä, Markku ; Niinistö, Lauri ; Niemelä, Pentti ; Nykänen, Erja ; Soininen, Pekka ; Tiitta, Marja ; Vähäkangas, Jouko. / Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process. In: Vacuum. 1990 ; Vol. 41, No. 4-6. pp. 1457-1459.
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Leskelä, M, Niinistö, L, Niemelä, P, Nykänen, E, Soininen, P, Tiitta, M & Vähäkangas, J 1990, 'Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process', Vacuum, vol. 41, no. 4-6, pp. 1457-1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-207X(90)93989-V

Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process. / Leskelä, Markku; Niinistö, Lauri; Niemelä, Pentti; Nykänen, Erja; Soininen, Pekka; Tiitta, Marja; Vähäkangas, Jouko.

In: Vacuum, Vol. 41, No. 4-6, 1990, p. 1457-1459.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Leskelä, Markku

AU - Niinistö, Lauri

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AU - Tiitta, Marja

AU - Vähäkangas, Jouko

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AB - Preparation of lead sulfide thin films on different substrates by the Atomic Layer Epitaxy process has been studied. Sulfur source was in all experiments H2S, but as lead source the following compounds were tested: bromide, iodide and acetate as well as thd (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and diethyldithiocarbamate chelates. The last complex gave the highest growth rate. The growth experiments were carried out at 300–350°C and the film thickness varied between 0.1 and 1 μm. The films were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, and by photoconductivity and Hall measurements. The results showed that the films were polycrystalline and randomly oriented. The conductivity was p-type and the carrier concentration and mobility were comparable with those found in films deposited by traditional chemical methods.

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Leskelä M, Niinistö L, Niemelä P, Nykänen E, Soininen P, Tiitta M et al. Preparation of lead sulfide thin films by the atomic layer epitaxy process. Vacuum. 1990;41(4-6):1457-1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-207X(90)93989-V