The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retail roe, as well as the microbiological and sensory qualities of the roe, were studied for three fish species under three different storage conditions. A total of 147 Finnish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), vendace (Coregonus albula), and burbot (Lota lota) roe samples were bought fresh, frozen, or frozen-thawed from Finnish retail markets. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 5%; however, the prevalence of the pathogen in fresh roe was 18%. Fresh-bought roe tested positive for Listeria spp. and for L. monocytogenes, respectively, 5 and 20 times as often as did frozen and frozen-thawed roe products combined. The microbiological quality (analyzed as total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria) of 78% of the roe samples was unacceptable. Frozen roe samples were found to have the best microbiological quality. According to the results of a sensory evaluation, at least one sensory attribute (appearance, odor freshness, texture, and freshness of taste) was unacceptable for 29% of the roe samples studied. The sensory quality of roe samples bought fresh was better than that of roe samples bought frozen or frozen-thawed. From the results of this study, it is concluded that both the microbiological and the sensory qualities of roe at the retail level need to be improved.