Prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Welding modern high-strength steel with low carbon and impurity contents, preheat may be dictated by cracking sensitivity of the weld metal instead of the HAZ. Standard EN 1011 does not provide the user with any unified methodology for the calculation of safe preheat for weld metal. The few calculation formulae that apply to multipass welds can give greatly varying predictions. This article studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal. The experiments comprised heavily restrained Y- and U-groove multipass cracking tests of SMAW and SAW welds. The objectives were the assessment of hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack — No Crack boundaries in terms of safe line description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T 0/T i for the avoidance of cracking. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content H cr corresponding to the Crack — No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal P cm, yield strength R p0.2 or maximum hardness HV 5(max). For the calculation of safe T 0/T i estimates, a formula incorporating weld metal strength as linear functions of either CET or weld HV 5(max), weld build-up thickness a w in the form of tanh expression and weld diffusible hydrogen H d in terms of combined [In / powerlaw] expression, was found descriptive.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2-18
Number of pages17
JournalWelding in the World
Volume48
Issue number5-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Hydrogen
Welds
Metals
Cracks
Heat affected zone
High strength steel
Yield stress
Welding
Carbon
Hardness
Impurities

Keywords

  • cracking
  • hydrogen cracking
  • welded joints
  • multirun welding
  • weld metal
  • filling passes
  • high strength steels
  • low alloy steels
  • influencing factors
  • cracking tests
  • practical investigations

Cite this

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title = "Prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds",
abstract = "Welding modern high-strength steel with low carbon and impurity contents, preheat may be dictated by cracking sensitivity of the weld metal instead of the HAZ. Standard EN 1011 does not provide the user with any unified methodology for the calculation of safe preheat for weld metal. The few calculation formulae that apply to multipass welds can give greatly varying predictions. This article studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal. The experiments comprised heavily restrained Y- and U-groove multipass cracking tests of SMAW and SAW welds. The objectives were the assessment of hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack — No Crack boundaries in terms of safe line description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T 0/T i for the avoidance of cracking. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content H cr corresponding to the Crack — No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal P cm, yield strength R p0.2 or maximum hardness HV 5(max). For the calculation of safe T 0/T i estimates, a formula incorporating weld metal strength as linear functions of either CET or weld HV 5(max), weld build-up thickness a w in the form of tanh expression and weld diffusible hydrogen H d in terms of combined [In / powerlaw] expression, was found descriptive.",
keywords = "cracking, hydrogen cracking, welded joints, multirun welding, weld metal, filling passes, high strength steels, low alloy steels, influencing factors, cracking tests, practical investigations",
author = "Pekka Nevasmaa",
note = "Project code: V8SU00850",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1007/BF03266427",
language = "English",
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pages = "2--18",
journal = "Welding in the World",
issn = "0043-2288",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "5-6",

}

Prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds. / Nevasmaa, Pekka.

In: Welding in the World, Vol. 48, No. 5-6, 2004, p. 2-18.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevention of weld metal hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass welds

AU - Nevasmaa, Pekka

N1 - Project code: V8SU00850

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Welding modern high-strength steel with low carbon and impurity contents, preheat may be dictated by cracking sensitivity of the weld metal instead of the HAZ. Standard EN 1011 does not provide the user with any unified methodology for the calculation of safe preheat for weld metal. The few calculation formulae that apply to multipass welds can give greatly varying predictions. This article studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal. The experiments comprised heavily restrained Y- and U-groove multipass cracking tests of SMAW and SAW welds. The objectives were the assessment of hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack — No Crack boundaries in terms of safe line description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T 0/T i for the avoidance of cracking. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content H cr corresponding to the Crack — No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal P cm, yield strength R p0.2 or maximum hardness HV 5(max). For the calculation of safe T 0/T i estimates, a formula incorporating weld metal strength as linear functions of either CET or weld HV 5(max), weld build-up thickness a w in the form of tanh expression and weld diffusible hydrogen H d in terms of combined [In / powerlaw] expression, was found descriptive.

AB - Welding modern high-strength steel with low carbon and impurity contents, preheat may be dictated by cracking sensitivity of the weld metal instead of the HAZ. Standard EN 1011 does not provide the user with any unified methodology for the calculation of safe preheat for weld metal. The few calculation formulae that apply to multipass welds can give greatly varying predictions. This article studies controlling factors that govern transverse hydrogen cracking in high-strength multipass weld metal. The experiments comprised heavily restrained Y- and U-groove multipass cracking tests of SMAW and SAW welds. The objectives were the assessment of hydrogen cracking risk by defining the Crack — No Crack boundaries in terms of safe line description giving the desired lower-bound estimates, and to derive predictive equations capable of giving reliable estimates of the required preheat/interpass temperature T 0/T i for the avoidance of cracking. Equations were derived to assess the weld critical hydrogen content H cr corresponding to the Crack — No Crack conditions as a function of either weld metal P cm, yield strength R p0.2 or maximum hardness HV 5(max). For the calculation of safe T 0/T i estimates, a formula incorporating weld metal strength as linear functions of either CET or weld HV 5(max), weld build-up thickness a w in the form of tanh expression and weld diffusible hydrogen H d in terms of combined [In / powerlaw] expression, was found descriptive.

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KW - welded joints

KW - multirun welding

KW - weld metal

KW - filling passes

KW - high strength steels

KW - low alloy steels

KW - influencing factors

KW - cracking tests

KW - practical investigations

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