Mobility Technologies are a core part of the European manufacturing industry and are a clear focus for Europe’s strategy to re-industrialize. The European mobility industry is estimated to employ between 10.9 and 13.3 million people, with rather high levels of wages, productivity and average value added. In 2016, the average wage in Mobility Technologies was 40 500 euros with specialised clusters showing a 5.4% wage premium over other locations. From 2011 to 2016, the employment has grown 0.2% and the wages 0.3% per year on average – the growth rates having been higher in specialised clusters than in other locations. In a dynamic perspective, the last 40 years have witnessed an appreciable worldwide increase in the sales of cars, buses and airplanes, which have tripled, thanks especially to the extraordinary expansion of the Chinese market in the last decade. On the other hand, environmental regulation and changes in habits and social norms are casting doubts on the future possibilities of the sector to keep similar rates of growth. For the next decade, revenues and profits from manufacturing and selling motors and vehicles are forecast to be stable or shrink, while those from mobility services are expected to soar. Not surprisingly, the specialised mobility technology clusters are located in areas of traditional automotive strength. The vast majority of all clusters have automotive as the core category, usually followed by production technology or metalworking. The industry is significantly and increasingly interconnected. The most important cross-sectoral mergers and acquisitions are carried out with the Machinery sector, followed by Electronics and Chemicals. The most dynamic hotspots in Mobility Technologies are in Germany, France and the UK. Cross-sectoral networks in Spain, Poland and Central Europe, Northern Italy and Sweden are increasing. Ireland and Denmark are significantly integrated with the UK and Sweden, respectively. Stuttgart is the leading cluster star region with 15 stars, together with a number of other German clusters. Three German regions, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern), are among the top 10 European regions with the highest number of employment in Mobility Technologies, with about 320 000, 180 000 and 140 000 employees. Similarly, three Italian regions, Lombardia, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna make their way to top 10 with about 310 000, 160 000 and 150 000 employees. Istanbul, Śląskie in Poland, Central Hungary and Cataluna are the other four regions with the highest number of employees in the industry. Close to 200 countries have committed in COP21 to limit the global warming below 2ºC. Low-emission biofuels, hybrid and electric vehicles are the first implications of the transformation in the transport sector. Beyond eco-friendly modes of transport, new sharing-economy based mobility services will ease traffic congestion and the environmental burden, and make more efficient use of resources. The greatest payoffs are expected from innovations that increase the effectiveness of low-emission mobility, whether of the entire system, service concepts, powertrains or clean energy. Compared to other emerging industries, there are relatively high number of global frontier and high growth firms in Mobility Technologies. The regions with specialised clusters locate a much higher rate of these firms than other locations. This probably reflects the quick technological development in the industry and the business opportunities it creates.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherEuropean Commission EC
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)978-92-9202-760-5
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study


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