Process cure monitoring of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats by Raman spectroscopy

Mikael Skrifvars (Corresponding Author), Pentti Niemelä, Rauli Koskinen, Osmo Hormi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber‐optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process. White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50–70 wt % glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285 - 1292
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume93
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Polyester resins
Process monitoring
Curing
Raman spectroscopy
Esters
Gels
Resins
Pigments
Glass fibers
Laminates
Spectrometers
Raman scattering

Keywords

  • composites
  • curing of polymers
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • resins
  • gel time

Cite this

Skrifvars, Mikael ; Niemelä, Pentti ; Koskinen, Rauli ; Hormi, Osmo. / Process cure monitoring of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats by Raman spectroscopy. In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2004 ; Vol. 93, No. 3. pp. 1285 - 1292.
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abstract = "The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber‐optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process. White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50–70 wt {\%} glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy.",
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Process cure monitoring of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats by Raman spectroscopy. / Skrifvars, Mikael (Corresponding Author); Niemelä, Pentti; Koskinen, Rauli; Hormi, Osmo.

In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2004, p. 1285 - 1292.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Hormi, Osmo

PY - 2004

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N2 - The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber‐optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process. White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50–70 wt % glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy.

AB - The curing process of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins, and gel coats was studied by using a process Raman spectrometer, equipped with a remote fiber‐optic probe. The resins were cured and Raman spectra were recorded during the curing reaction. The spectral changes were identified and, from the intensities, the cure process could be monitored. Gel times given by the resin suppliers correlated well with the Raman results. It could also be seen that the curing process continues for a long time, up to several weeks. Postcuring will finally complete the curing process. White and lightly colored gel coats could easily be monitored by Raman spectroscopy, but fluorescent problems were encountered with heavily colored pigments. The curing of laminates containing 50–70 wt % glass fiber mat could also be followed by Raman spectroscopy.

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