Process-induced changes on bioactive compounds in whole grain rye

Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen (Corresponding Author), Kati Katina, Annika Wilhelmson, Olavi Myllymäki, Anna-Maija Lampi, Susanna Kariluoto, Vieno Piironen, Satu-Maarit Heinonen, Tarja Nurmi, Herman Adlercreutz, Anna Peltoketo, Juha-Matti Pihlava, Veli Hietaniemi, Kaisa Poutanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    208 Citations (Scopus)


    Manufacturing of healthy whole-grain foods demands knowledge of process-induced changes in macro-, micro- and non-nutrients. The high content of dietary fibre is a challenge in relation to good product texture and sensory quality. The stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds have a marked influence on the health effects of cereal foods. It was confirmed that sterols, folates, tocopherols and tocotrienols, alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids and total phenolics are concentrated in the bran layers of the rye grain, and are only present at low levels in the flour endosperm. The levels of folate and easily-extractable phenolic compounds increase in germination and sourdough baking, but there are negligible changes in the levels of sterols, lignans and alk(en)ylresorcinols. The levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols are reduced during the sourdough fermentation. In conclusion, many of the bioactive compounds in whole-grain rye are stable during food processing, and their levels can even be increased with suitable processing.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)117-122
    Number of pages6
    JournalThe Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2003
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • whole grains
    • rye
    • food processing
    • dietary fibres


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