Components in many industrial applications, such as in the chemical, energy, process, pulp and paper, transport, etc. industries are exposed to harsh conditions in terms of e.g. mechanical and environmental loads. These conditions induce severe wear and may cause functional problems in the operation of mechanical systems because of high friction, especially at medium to high temperatures. Wear may also cause material to crack off from the surface; dirt or other impurities on surfaces exacerbate the problems even more. Consequently, maintenance problems and a shortening of the lifespan of the equipment may occur. The damaged components may also lead to hazards for the environment as, e.g., the sticking of valves may lead to dangerous chemical leaks. It is possible to reduce wear by using materials and coatings specially designed for the application. Such materials are often based on composite or nanocomposite concepts that typically incorporate ceramic additions to a metal matrix, but may also be based on other novel coating concepts. This paper presents trends in the development of hybrid materials and their use in components with novel functionality produced by thermal spraying and other compacting techniques.
- hybrid materials