Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations

Antti Hakola (Corresponding author), Kalle Heinola, Jari Likonen, Cristian Lungu, Corneliu Porosnicu, E Alves, R. Mateus, Iva Bogdanović Radović, Z. Siketić, V. Nemanic

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Since 2014, a large project has been running under the EUROfusion Consortium to produce ITER-relevant test samples for fuel-retention studies. The strategy is to deposit mixed, Be-containing coatings at the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics in Romania and distribute the samples for analyses and/or ion-implantation in partner laboratories. The composition, thickness, and surface structure of the deposits have been varied to study their influence on the efficiency of D retention and to make predictions for ITER. For benchmarking purposes, samples resembling the co-deposited layers on the inner divertor of JET during its ITER-Like Wall (ILW) campaigns [1] have also been produced. The properties of the samples have been determined using a variety of surface-analysis tools including Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Time-of-flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF-ERDA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Thermal Desoprtion Spectroscopy (TDS), and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

The focus has been put on D-doped Be-O, Be-W, Be-C-O (in the case of JET-ILW comparison) coatings with different surface morphologies in the nanoscale and thicknesses ranging from about 0.1 um to some 15 um. The relative D content of the samples can routinely be increased to 5-10 at.%, and in some coating types even 40 at.% has been reached. This is a good starting point to fabricate co-deposits with seeding gases and/or helium in the future. The Be-O-C-D coatings most closely resembling the JET-ILW co-deposits (O and C content 5-10 at.%, D content ~5 at.%, thickness ~15 um) show very similar release behavior of D as real JET samples, indicating that the laboratory samples well mimic the structure of co-deposits in fusion reactors.

The surface analyses have revealed that increasing the O content from a few to 50 at.% in otherwise identical samples lowers the amount of D that can be retained, by up to a factor of 10. Implantation with D+ ions results in similar retention behavior, though with more peaked D profiles, than direct doping during the deposition phase. The data also indicate that more D can accumulate in the sample if the thickness of the coating is increased, the surface becomes more modified and rough, or, in the case of mixed Be-W deposits, the relative Be fraction increases.

[1] K. Heinola et al., Experience on divertor fuel retention after two ITER-Like Wall campaigns, Phys. Scr. (accepted).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA
Subtitle of host publicationBook of Abstracts
PublisherPrinceton University
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
Event23rd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices - Princeton University, Princeton, United States
Duration: 17 Jun 201822 Jun 2018
https://psi2018.princeton.edu/

Conference

Conference23rd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices
Abbreviated titlePSI-23
CountryUnited States
CityPrinceton
Period17/06/1822/06/18
Internet address

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deposits
coatings
plasma radiation
Romania
physics
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
fusion reactors
plasma physics
inoculation
nuclear reactions
spectroscopy
secondary ion mass spectrometry
ion implantation
implantation
backscattering
helium
profiles
predictions
gases
lasers

Cite this

Hakola, A., Heinola, K., Likonen, J., Lungu, C., Porosnicu, C., Alves, E., ... Nemanic, V. (2018). Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations. In 23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA: Book of Abstracts [378] Princeton University.
Hakola, Antti ; Heinola, Kalle ; Likonen, Jari ; Lungu, Cristian ; Porosnicu, Corneliu ; Alves, E ; Mateus, R. ; Radović, Iva Bogdanović ; Siketić, Z. ; Nemanic, V. / Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations. 23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA: Book of Abstracts. Princeton University, 2018.
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title = "Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations",
abstract = "Since 2014, a large project has been running under the EUROfusion Consortium to produce ITER-relevant test samples for fuel-retention studies. The strategy is to deposit mixed, Be-containing coatings at the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics in Romania and distribute the samples for analyses and/or ion-implantation in partner laboratories. The composition, thickness, and surface structure of the deposits have been varied to study their influence on the efficiency of D retention and to make predictions for ITER. For benchmarking purposes, samples resembling the co-deposited layers on the inner divertor of JET during its ITER-Like Wall (ILW) campaigns [1] have also been produced. The properties of the samples have been determined using a variety of surface-analysis tools including Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Time-of-flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF-ERDA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Thermal Desoprtion Spectroscopy (TDS), and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The focus has been put on D-doped Be-O, Be-W, Be-C-O (in the case of JET-ILW comparison) coatings with different surface morphologies in the nanoscale and thicknesses ranging from about 0.1 um to some 15 um. The relative D content of the samples can routinely be increased to 5-10 at.{\%}, and in some coating types even 40 at.{\%} has been reached. This is a good starting point to fabricate co-deposits with seeding gases and/or helium in the future. The Be-O-C-D coatings most closely resembling the JET-ILW co-deposits (O and C content 5-10 at.{\%}, D content ~5 at.{\%}, thickness ~15 um) show very similar release behavior of D as real JET samples, indicating that the laboratory samples well mimic the structure of co-deposits in fusion reactors.The surface analyses have revealed that increasing the O content from a few to 50 at.{\%} in otherwise identical samples lowers the amount of D that can be retained, by up to a factor of 10. Implantation with D+ ions results in similar retention behavior, though with more peaked D profiles, than direct doping during the deposition phase. The data also indicate that more D can accumulate in the sample if the thickness of the coating is increased, the surface becomes more modified and rough, or, in the case of mixed Be-W deposits, the relative Be fraction increases.[1] K. Heinola et al., Experience on divertor fuel retention after two ITER-Like Wall campaigns, Phys. Scr. (accepted).",
author = "Antti Hakola and Kalle Heinola and Jari Likonen and Cristian Lungu and Corneliu Porosnicu and E Alves and R. Mateus and Radović, {Iva Bogdanović} and Z. Siketić and V. Nemanic",
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Hakola, A, Heinola, K, Likonen, J, Lungu, C, Porosnicu, C, Alves, E, Mateus, R, Radović, IB, Siketić, Z & Nemanic, V 2018, Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations. in 23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA: Book of Abstracts., 378, Princeton University, 23rd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices, Princeton, United States, 17/06/18.

Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations. / Hakola, Antti (Corresponding author); Heinola, Kalle; Likonen, Jari; Lungu, Cristian; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Alves, E; Mateus, R.; Radović, Iva Bogdanović; Siketić, Z.; Nemanic, V.

23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA: Book of Abstracts. Princeton University, 2018. 378.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

TY - CHAP

T1 - Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations

AU - Hakola, Antti

AU - Heinola, Kalle

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Lungu, Cristian

AU - Porosnicu, Corneliu

AU - Alves, E

AU - Mateus, R.

AU - Radović, Iva Bogdanović

AU - Siketić, Z.

AU - Nemanic, V.

PY - 2018/6

Y1 - 2018/6

N2 - Since 2014, a large project has been running under the EUROfusion Consortium to produce ITER-relevant test samples for fuel-retention studies. The strategy is to deposit mixed, Be-containing coatings at the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics in Romania and distribute the samples for analyses and/or ion-implantation in partner laboratories. The composition, thickness, and surface structure of the deposits have been varied to study their influence on the efficiency of D retention and to make predictions for ITER. For benchmarking purposes, samples resembling the co-deposited layers on the inner divertor of JET during its ITER-Like Wall (ILW) campaigns [1] have also been produced. The properties of the samples have been determined using a variety of surface-analysis tools including Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Time-of-flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF-ERDA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Thermal Desoprtion Spectroscopy (TDS), and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The focus has been put on D-doped Be-O, Be-W, Be-C-O (in the case of JET-ILW comparison) coatings with different surface morphologies in the nanoscale and thicknesses ranging from about 0.1 um to some 15 um. The relative D content of the samples can routinely be increased to 5-10 at.%, and in some coating types even 40 at.% has been reached. This is a good starting point to fabricate co-deposits with seeding gases and/or helium in the future. The Be-O-C-D coatings most closely resembling the JET-ILW co-deposits (O and C content 5-10 at.%, D content ~5 at.%, thickness ~15 um) show very similar release behavior of D as real JET samples, indicating that the laboratory samples well mimic the structure of co-deposits in fusion reactors.The surface analyses have revealed that increasing the O content from a few to 50 at.% in otherwise identical samples lowers the amount of D that can be retained, by up to a factor of 10. Implantation with D+ ions results in similar retention behavior, though with more peaked D profiles, than direct doping during the deposition phase. The data also indicate that more D can accumulate in the sample if the thickness of the coating is increased, the surface becomes more modified and rough, or, in the case of mixed Be-W deposits, the relative Be fraction increases.[1] K. Heinola et al., Experience on divertor fuel retention after two ITER-Like Wall campaigns, Phys. Scr. (accepted).

AB - Since 2014, a large project has been running under the EUROfusion Consortium to produce ITER-relevant test samples for fuel-retention studies. The strategy is to deposit mixed, Be-containing coatings at the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics in Romania and distribute the samples for analyses and/or ion-implantation in partner laboratories. The composition, thickness, and surface structure of the deposits have been varied to study their influence on the efficiency of D retention and to make predictions for ITER. For benchmarking purposes, samples resembling the co-deposited layers on the inner divertor of JET during its ITER-Like Wall (ILW) campaigns [1] have also been produced. The properties of the samples have been determined using a variety of surface-analysis tools including Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Time-of-flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF-ERDA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Thermal Desoprtion Spectroscopy (TDS), and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The focus has been put on D-doped Be-O, Be-W, Be-C-O (in the case of JET-ILW comparison) coatings with different surface morphologies in the nanoscale and thicknesses ranging from about 0.1 um to some 15 um. The relative D content of the samples can routinely be increased to 5-10 at.%, and in some coating types even 40 at.% has been reached. This is a good starting point to fabricate co-deposits with seeding gases and/or helium in the future. The Be-O-C-D coatings most closely resembling the JET-ILW co-deposits (O and C content 5-10 at.%, D content ~5 at.%, thickness ~15 um) show very similar release behavior of D as real JET samples, indicating that the laboratory samples well mimic the structure of co-deposits in fusion reactors.The surface analyses have revealed that increasing the O content from a few to 50 at.% in otherwise identical samples lowers the amount of D that can be retained, by up to a factor of 10. Implantation with D+ ions results in similar retention behavior, though with more peaked D profiles, than direct doping during the deposition phase. The data also indicate that more D can accumulate in the sample if the thickness of the coating is increased, the surface becomes more modified and rough, or, in the case of mixed Be-W deposits, the relative Be fraction increases.[1] K. Heinola et al., Experience on divertor fuel retention after two ITER-Like Wall campaigns, Phys. Scr. (accepted).

M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

BT - 23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA

PB - Princeton University

ER -

Hakola A, Heinola K, Likonen J, Lungu C, Porosnicu C, Alves E et al. Production of ITER-relevant Be-containing laboratory samples for fuel retention investigations. In 23rd PSI Conference Princeton USA: Book of Abstracts. Princeton University. 2018. 378