Progress with applications of three-ion ICRF scenarios for fusion research: A review

Ye O. Kazakov (Corresponding Author), J. Ongena, M. Nocente, V. Bobkov, J. Garcia, V. G. Kiptily, M. Schneider, S. Wukitch, J. C. Wright, M. Dreval, K. K. Kirov, S. Mazzi, R. Ochoukov, S. E. Sharapov, Štancar, H. Weisen, Y. Baranov, M. Baruzzo, A. Bierwage, R. BilatoA. Chomiczewska, R. Coelho, T. Craciunescu, K. Crombé, E. Delabie, E. De La Luna, R. Dumont, P. Dumortier, F. Durodié, J. Eriksson, M. Fitzgerald, J. Galdon-Quiroga, D. Gallart, M. Garcia-Munoz, L. Giacomelli, C. Giroud, J. Gonzalez-Martin, A. Hakola, R. Henriques, P. Jacquet, I. Jepu, T. Johnson, A. Kappatou, D. Keeling, D. King, C. Klepper, Ph Lauber, M. Lennholm, E. Lerche, P. Siren, JET Contributors, ASDEX Upgrade Team, EUROfusion MST1 Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle in a proceedings journalScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The viability of magnetic confinement fusion as an energy source depends on achieving the high ion temperatures required for D-T fusion. Among the available techniques, plasma heating with waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a prominent method for bulk ion heating in fusion plasmas. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the non-linear physics of alpha heating and the complex impact of MeV-range fast ions on plasma dynamics becomes progressively more important. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent developments with the three-ion ICRF scenarios on Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade and JET tokamaks. The results demonstrate the flexibility of these novel scenarios for heating bulk ions in D-T ≈ 50%-50% plasmas and efficient generation of MeV-range fast ions in multi-ion species plasmas. Several key results relevant for ITER and future fusion reactors are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number020001
JournalAIP Conference Proceedings
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2023
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event24th Topical Conference on Radio-frequency Power in Plasmas - Annapolis, United States
Duration: 26 Sept 202228 Sept 2022


This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium, funded by the European Union via the Euratom Research and Training Programme (Grant Agreement No 101052200 – EUROfusion). Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Commission. Neither the European Union nor the European Commission can be held responsible for them. We thank the ITPA Energetic Particle Physics Topical Group for its support. Part of this work was also carried out in the framework of projects done for the ITER Scientist Fellow Network (ISFN).


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