The properties of indigenous fuels used in Finland have
been studied in thispublication based both on literature
and on the research carried out at VTT andother research
institutes and universities. Data have also been
collected from thefuel producers and energy utilities.
Transport fuels are not included.
The main properties of the fuels discussed in this
publication are calorific value, chemical composition,
moisture content, density, grindability and other fuel
handling properties, ash content, ash melting behaviour
and ash composition, and concentrations of harmful
substances, such as alkali and heavy metals.
The properties of different kinds of fuels, such as wood
fuels, peat, energy crops, sludges, fast pyrolysis oil,
and gaseous fuels are presented in the form of tables.
Both commercial fuels and fuels under development are
covered. The definitions for the fuels and the
properties, the analysis methods for different
properties, and the formulae for calculation of the
values are presented in the beginning of the publication.
A brief presentation is also given of the production
methods of indigenous fuels, as well as estimates of the
production and utilisation potentials in Finland. At the
end of the publication there are analyses of how the
properties affect combustion and gasification. Appendices
include lists of standards, fuel specifications of milled
and sod peat, and peat pellets. Additional data on peat,
used wood and solid recovered fuels are also given.
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Number of pages||222|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
|MoE publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
- analysis methods
- pyrolysis oil
- solid recovered fuels