Properties of indigenous fuels in Finland

Eija Alakangas, Markus Hurskainen, Jaana Laatikainen-Luntama, Jaana Korhonen

Research output: Book/ReportReport


The properties of indigenous fuels used in Finland have been studied in thispublication based both on literature and on the research carried out at VTT andother research institutes and universities. Data have also been collected from thefuel producers and energy utilities. Transport fuels are not included. The main properties of the fuels discussed in this publication are calorific value, chemical composition, moisture content, density, grindability and other fuel handling properties, ash content, ash melting behaviour and ash composition, and concentrations of harmful substances, such as alkali and heavy metals. The properties of different kinds of fuels, such as wood fuels, peat, energy crops, sludges, fast pyrolysis oil, and gaseous fuels are presented in the form of tables. Both commercial fuels and fuels under development are covered. The definitions for the fuels and the properties, the analysis methods for different properties, and the formulae for calculation of the values are presented in the beginning of the publication. A brief presentation is also given of the production methods of indigenous fuels, as well as estimates of the production and utilisation potentials in Finland. At the end of the publication there are analyses of how the properties affect combustion and gasification. Appendices include lists of standards, fuel specifications of milled and sod peat, and peat pellets. Additional data on peat, used wood and solid recovered fuels are also given.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages222
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8455-0
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-8456-7
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology


  • properties
  • fuels
  • sampling
  • analysis methods
  • wood
  • peat
  • agrobiomass
  • pyrolysis oil
  • solid recovered fuels

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  • Cite this

    Alakangas, E., Hurskainen, M., Laatikainen-Luntama, J., & Korhonen, J. (2016). Properties of indigenous fuels in Finland. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 272