Properties of soft magnetic Fe-Co-V alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion

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    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF).

    Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured.

    Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents.

    Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research.

    Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)699-707
    Number of pages9
    JournalRapid Prototyping Journal
    Volume25
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2019
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Fingerprint

    Fusion reactions
    Powders
    Heat treatment
    Lasers
    Magnetic properties
    Microstructure
    Soft magnetic materials
    Magnetic leakage
    Mechanical properties
    Atomization
    Electric current measurement
    Magnetic flux
    Saturation magnetization
    Eddy currents
    Coercive force
    Grain growth
    Design of experiments
    Porosity
    Chemical analysis
    Gases

    Keywords

    • Additive manufacturing
    • Soft magnetic material
    • L-PBF
    • Fe-Co-V
    • Magnetic properties
    • Mechanical properties

    Cite this

    @article{75f76260a33740d6bccda458726742a1,
    title = "Properties of soft magnetic Fe-Co-V alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion",
    abstract = "Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.",
    keywords = "Additive manufacturing, Soft magnetic material, L-PBF, Fe-Co-V, Magnetic properties, Mechanical properties",
    author = "Tuomas Riipinen and Sini Mets{\"a}-Kortelainen and Tomi Lindroos and Janne Ker{\"a}nen and Aino Manninen and Jenni Pippuri-M{\"a}kel{\"a}inen",
    year = "2019",
    month = "5",
    day = "13",
    doi = "10.1108/RPJ-06-2018-0136",
    language = "English",
    volume = "25",
    pages = "699--707",
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    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Properties of soft magnetic Fe-Co-V alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion

    AU - Riipinen, Tuomas

    AU - Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini

    AU - Lindroos, Tomi

    AU - Keränen, Janne

    AU - Manninen, Aino

    AU - Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Jenni

    PY - 2019/5/13

    Y1 - 2019/5/13

    N2 - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.

    AB - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.

    KW - Additive manufacturing

    KW - Soft magnetic material

    KW - L-PBF

    KW - Fe-Co-V

    KW - Magnetic properties

    KW - Mechanical properties

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    U2 - 10.1108/RPJ-06-2018-0136

    DO - 10.1108/RPJ-06-2018-0136

    M3 - Article

    VL - 25

    SP - 699

    EP - 707

    JO - Rapid Prototyping Journal

    JF - Rapid Prototyping Journal

    SN - 1355-2546

    IS - 4

    ER -