Properties of soft magnetic Fe-Co-V alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF).

Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured.

Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents.

Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research.

Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-707
Number of pages9
JournalRapid Prototyping Journal
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Fingerprint

Fusion reactions
Powders
Heat treatment
Lasers
Magnetic properties
Microstructure
Soft magnetic materials
Magnetic leakage
Mechanical properties
Atomization
Electric current measurement
Magnetic flux
Saturation magnetization
Eddy currents
Coercive force
Grain growth
Design of experiments
Porosity
Chemical analysis
Gases

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • Soft magnetic material
  • L-PBF
  • Fe-Co-V
  • Magnetic properties
  • Mechanical properties

Cite this

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title = "Properties of soft magnetic Fe-Co-V alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion",
abstract = "Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.",
keywords = "Additive manufacturing, Soft magnetic material, L-PBF, Fe-Co-V, Magnetic properties, Mechanical properties",
author = "Tuomas Riipinen and Sini Mets{\"a}-Kortelainen and Tomi Lindroos and Janne Ker{\"a}nen and Aino Manninen and Jenni Pippuri-M{\"a}kel{\"a}inen",
year = "2019",
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AU - Riipinen, Tuomas

AU - Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini

AU - Lindroos, Tomi

AU - Keränen, Janne

AU - Manninen, Aino

AU - Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Jenni

PY - 2019/5/13

Y1 - 2019/5/13

N2 - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.

AB - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the developments in manufacturing soft magnetic materials using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Design/methodology/approach – Ternary soft magnetic Fe-49Co-2V powder was produced by gas atomization and used in an L-PBF machine to produce samples for material characterization. The L-PBF process parameters were optimized for the material, using a design of experiments approach. The printed samples were exposed to different heat treatment cycles to improve the magnetic properties. The magnetic properties were measured with quasi-static direct current and alternating current measurements at different frequencies and magnetic flux densities. The mechanical properties were characterized with tensile tests. Electrical resistivity of the material was measured. Findings – The optimized L-PBF process parameters resulted in very low porosity. The magnetic properties improved greatly after the heat treatments because of changes in microstructure. Based on the quasi-static DC measurement results, one of the heat treatment cycles led to magnetic saturation, permeability and coercivity values comparable to a commercial Fe-Co-V alloy. The other heat treatments resulted in abnormal grain growth and poor magnetic performance. The AC measurement results showed that the magnetic losses were relatively high in the samples owing to formation of eddy currents. Research limitations/implications – The influence of L-PBF process parameters on the microstructure was not investigated; hence, understanding the relationship between process parameters, heat treatments and magnetic properties would require more research. Originality/value – The relationship between microstructure, chemical composition, heat treatments, resistivity and magnetic/mechanical properties of L-PBF processed Fe-Co-V alloy has not been reported previously.

KW - Additive manufacturing

KW - Soft magnetic material

KW - L-PBF

KW - Fe-Co-V

KW - Magnetic properties

KW - Mechanical properties

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JF - Rapid Prototyping Journal

SN - 1355-2546

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