Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag

Sanni Eloneva, Sebastian Teir, Justin Salminen, Hannu Revitzer, Kaisa Kontu, Ann-Mari Forsman, Ron Zevenhoven, Carl-Johan Fogelholm

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    The steel industry accounts for approximately 6-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved by using steelmaking slags for carbon dioxide mineralization, (i.e mineral carbonation). Due to their high calcium content, steelmaking slags could be very suitable for this method that could store carbon dioxide safely for over 100 000 years. This option is especially important for a country like Finland, where there are no suitable geological formations for CO2 storage. If calcium could be extracted from the slags prior to carbonation, a pure, and thus also marketable, calcium carbonate could be produced. This could possibly replace some of the natural and synthetic CaCO3 used in industry, combining savings in natural resources with CO2 emissions reduction. By carbonating all of the steelmaking slag produced at Raahe Works, the largest steel-works in the Nordic countries, up to 260 kt of CO2 could be stored and 590 kt CaCO3 produced annually. If the produced precipitate met the quality standards of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), process costs up to about 200 /t of CO2 could be allowed. The development work on the production of pure calcium carbonate from slag by mineral carbonation is presented in this paper. The study is based on experimental research. Selective extraction of calcium from steel converter slag was investigated using various solvents. Precipitation of calcium carbonate from dissolved calcium at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Our results indicate that while acids are the most efficient solvents for extracting calcium from the steel converter slag, ammonium salt solutions extract calcium most selectively. For instance, a solution of 2 M ammonium acetate was able to extract ~ 70 % of the calcium, while the only other dissolved element was silicon (~5 %). When bubbling CO2 gas through the solution calcium carbonate precipitated. It appeared to be possible to produce a precipitate containing up to 99.8 % CaCO3 as calcite. The next task is to find out whether the produced precipitate meets the requirements for commercial PCC and which solvent gives the cheapest route to produce this precipitate.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008
    EditorsRenato Baciocchi , Giulia Costa, Alessandra Polettini , Raffaella Pomi
    Place of PublicationRome, Italy
    Pages239-248
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008 - Rome, Italy
    Duration: 1 Oct 20083 Oct 2008

    Conference

    Conference2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008
    Abbreviated titleACEME 2008
    CountryItaly
    CityRome
    Period1/10/083/10/08

    Fingerprint

    Carbonation
    Steelmaking
    Calcium carbonate
    Slags
    Calcium
    Precipitates
    Steel
    Carbon dioxide
    Minerals
    Iron and steel industry
    Calcite
    Natural resources
    Atmospheric pressure
    Salts
    Silicon
    Acids
    Gases
    Costs
    Industry

    Cite this

    Eloneva, S., Teir, S., Salminen, J., Revitzer, H., Kontu, K., Forsman, A-M., ... Fogelholm, C-J. (2008). Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag. In R. Baciocchi , G. Costa, A. Polettini , & R. Pomi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008 (pp. 239-248). Rome, Italy.
    Eloneva, Sanni ; Teir, Sebastian ; Salminen, Justin ; Revitzer, Hannu ; Kontu, Kaisa ; Forsman, Ann-Mari ; Zevenhoven, Ron ; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan. / Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. editor / Renato Baciocchi ; Giulia Costa ; Alessandra Polettini ; Raffaella Pomi . Rome, Italy, 2008. pp. 239-248
    @inproceedings{ca96122e99594892b19020a5384ea3bf,
    title = "Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag",
    abstract = "The steel industry accounts for approximately 6-7{\%} of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved by using steelmaking slags for carbon dioxide mineralization, (i.e mineral carbonation). Due to their high calcium content, steelmaking slags could be very suitable for this method that could store carbon dioxide safely for over 100 000 years. This option is especially important for a country like Finland, where there are no suitable geological formations for CO2 storage. If calcium could be extracted from the slags prior to carbonation, a pure, and thus also marketable, calcium carbonate could be produced. This could possibly replace some of the natural and synthetic CaCO3 used in industry, combining savings in natural resources with CO2 emissions reduction. By carbonating all of the steelmaking slag produced at Raahe Works, the largest steel-works in the Nordic countries, up to 260 kt of CO2 could be stored and 590 kt CaCO3 produced annually. If the produced precipitate met the quality standards of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), process costs up to about 200 /t of CO2 could be allowed. The development work on the production of pure calcium carbonate from slag by mineral carbonation is presented in this paper. The study is based on experimental research. Selective extraction of calcium from steel converter slag was investigated using various solvents. Precipitation of calcium carbonate from dissolved calcium at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Our results indicate that while acids are the most efficient solvents for extracting calcium from the steel converter slag, ammonium salt solutions extract calcium most selectively. For instance, a solution of 2 M ammonium acetate was able to extract ~ 70 {\%} of the calcium, while the only other dissolved element was silicon (~5 {\%}). When bubbling CO2 gas through the solution calcium carbonate precipitated. It appeared to be possible to produce a precipitate containing up to 99.8 {\%} CaCO3 as calcite. The next task is to find out whether the produced precipitate meets the requirements for commercial PCC and which solvent gives the cheapest route to produce this precipitate.",
    author = "Sanni Eloneva and Sebastian Teir and Justin Salminen and Hannu Revitzer and Kaisa Kontu and Ann-Mari Forsman and Ron Zevenhoven and Carl-Johan Fogelholm",
    year = "2008",
    language = "English",
    pages = "239--248",
    editor = "{Baciocchi }, Renato and Giulia Costa and {Polettini }, Alessandra and {Pomi }, Raffaella",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008",

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    Eloneva, S, Teir, S, Salminen, J, Revitzer, H, Kontu, K, Forsman, A-M, Zevenhoven, R & Fogelholm, C-J 2008, Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag. in R Baciocchi , G Costa, A Polettini & R Pomi (eds), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. Rome, Italy, pp. 239-248, 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008, Rome, Italy, 1/10/08.

    Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag. / Eloneva, Sanni; Teir, Sebastian; Salminen, Justin; Revitzer, Hannu; Kontu, Kaisa; Forsman, Ann-Mari; Zevenhoven, Ron; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan.

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. ed. / Renato Baciocchi ; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini ; Raffaella Pomi . Rome, Italy, 2008. p. 239-248.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag

    AU - Eloneva, Sanni

    AU - Teir, Sebastian

    AU - Salminen, Justin

    AU - Revitzer, Hannu

    AU - Kontu, Kaisa

    AU - Forsman, Ann-Mari

    AU - Zevenhoven, Ron

    AU - Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - The steel industry accounts for approximately 6-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved by using steelmaking slags for carbon dioxide mineralization, (i.e mineral carbonation). Due to their high calcium content, steelmaking slags could be very suitable for this method that could store carbon dioxide safely for over 100 000 years. This option is especially important for a country like Finland, where there are no suitable geological formations for CO2 storage. If calcium could be extracted from the slags prior to carbonation, a pure, and thus also marketable, calcium carbonate could be produced. This could possibly replace some of the natural and synthetic CaCO3 used in industry, combining savings in natural resources with CO2 emissions reduction. By carbonating all of the steelmaking slag produced at Raahe Works, the largest steel-works in the Nordic countries, up to 260 kt of CO2 could be stored and 590 kt CaCO3 produced annually. If the produced precipitate met the quality standards of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), process costs up to about 200 /t of CO2 could be allowed. The development work on the production of pure calcium carbonate from slag by mineral carbonation is presented in this paper. The study is based on experimental research. Selective extraction of calcium from steel converter slag was investigated using various solvents. Precipitation of calcium carbonate from dissolved calcium at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Our results indicate that while acids are the most efficient solvents for extracting calcium from the steel converter slag, ammonium salt solutions extract calcium most selectively. For instance, a solution of 2 M ammonium acetate was able to extract ~ 70 % of the calcium, while the only other dissolved element was silicon (~5 %). When bubbling CO2 gas through the solution calcium carbonate precipitated. It appeared to be possible to produce a precipitate containing up to 99.8 % CaCO3 as calcite. The next task is to find out whether the produced precipitate meets the requirements for commercial PCC and which solvent gives the cheapest route to produce this precipitate.

    AB - The steel industry accounts for approximately 6-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Significant CO2 emission reductions could be achieved by using steelmaking slags for carbon dioxide mineralization, (i.e mineral carbonation). Due to their high calcium content, steelmaking slags could be very suitable for this method that could store carbon dioxide safely for over 100 000 years. This option is especially important for a country like Finland, where there are no suitable geological formations for CO2 storage. If calcium could be extracted from the slags prior to carbonation, a pure, and thus also marketable, calcium carbonate could be produced. This could possibly replace some of the natural and synthetic CaCO3 used in industry, combining savings in natural resources with CO2 emissions reduction. By carbonating all of the steelmaking slag produced at Raahe Works, the largest steel-works in the Nordic countries, up to 260 kt of CO2 could be stored and 590 kt CaCO3 produced annually. If the produced precipitate met the quality standards of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), process costs up to about 200 /t of CO2 could be allowed. The development work on the production of pure calcium carbonate from slag by mineral carbonation is presented in this paper. The study is based on experimental research. Selective extraction of calcium from steel converter slag was investigated using various solvents. Precipitation of calcium carbonate from dissolved calcium at atmospheric pressure was also investigated. Our results indicate that while acids are the most efficient solvents for extracting calcium from the steel converter slag, ammonium salt solutions extract calcium most selectively. For instance, a solution of 2 M ammonium acetate was able to extract ~ 70 % of the calcium, while the only other dissolved element was silicon (~5 %). When bubbling CO2 gas through the solution calcium carbonate precipitated. It appeared to be possible to produce a precipitate containing up to 99.8 % CaCO3 as calcite. The next task is to find out whether the produced precipitate meets the requirements for commercial PCC and which solvent gives the cheapest route to produce this precipitate.

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

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    EP - 248

    BT - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008

    A2 - Baciocchi , Renato

    A2 - Costa, Giulia

    A2 - Polettini , Alessandra

    A2 - Pomi , Raffaella

    CY - Rome, Italy

    ER -

    Eloneva S, Teir S, Salminen J, Revitzer H, Kontu K, Forsman A-M et al. Pure calcium carbonate product from the carbonation of a steelmaking slag. In Baciocchi R, Costa G, Polettini A, Pomi R, editors, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. Rome, Italy. 2008. p. 239-248