Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material

Lasse Ahonen, Petri Korkeakoski, Mia Tiljander, Harri Kivikoski, Rainer Laaksonen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

This report describes a quality assurance chain for the bentonite material acquisition for a nuclear waste disposal repository. Chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical methods, which may be applied in quality control of bentonite are shortly reviewed. As a case study, many of the presented control studies were performed for six different bentonite samples, including Wyoming bentonite "MX-80" and three Indian bentonites (Kutch, Ashapura). Chemical analysis is a very reliable research method to control material homogeneity, because the accuracy and repeatability of the study method is extremely good. Accurate mineralogical study of bentonite is a complicated task. X-ray diffractometry is the best method to identify smectite minerals, but quantitative analysis of smectite content remains uncertain. To obtain a better quantitative analysis, development of techniques based on automatic image analysis of SEM images is proposed. General characteristics of bentonite can be obtained by rapid indicator tests, which can be done on the place of reception. These tests are methylene blue test giving information on the cation exchange capacity, swelling index and determination of water absorption. Different methods were used in the determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. The results indicated differencies both between methodologies and between replicate determinations for the same material and method. Additional work should be done to improve the reliability and reproducibility of the methodology. Bentonite contains water in different modes. Thus, different determination methods are used in bentonite studies and they give somewhat dissimilar results. Clay research use frequently the so-called consistency tests (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index). This study method does, however, not seem to be very practical in quality control of bentonite. Therefore only determination of liquid limit with fall-cone method is recommended for quality control.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherPosiva
Number of pages122
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesPosiva Working Report
Number2008-33

Fingerprint

bentonite
quality control
study method
liquid limit
cation exchange capacity
smectite
quantitative analysis
quality assurance
material
general characteristics
methodology
research method
repository
waste disposal
image analysis
radioactive waste
chemical analysis
swelling
homogeneity
plasticity

Keywords

  • bentonite
  • chemical composition
  • clay mineralogy
  • X-ray diffractometry
  • cation exchange capacity
  • thermal analysis
  • swelling index
  • quality assurance system

Cite this

Ahonen, L., Korkeakoski, P., Tiljander, M., Kivikoski, H., & Laaksonen, R. (2008). Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material. Posiva . Posiva Working Report, No. 2008-33
Ahonen, Lasse ; Korkeakoski, Petri ; Tiljander, Mia ; Kivikoski, Harri ; Laaksonen, Rainer. / Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material. Posiva , 2008. 122 p. (Posiva Working Report; No. 2008-33).
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Ahonen, L, Korkeakoski, P, Tiljander, M, Kivikoski, H & Laaksonen, R 2008, Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material. Posiva Working Report, no. 2008-33, Posiva .

Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material. / Ahonen, Lasse; Korkeakoski, Petri; Tiljander, Mia; Kivikoski, Harri; Laaksonen, Rainer.

Posiva , 2008. 122 p. (Posiva Working Report; No. 2008-33).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material

AU - Ahonen, Lasse

AU - Korkeakoski, Petri

AU - Tiljander, Mia

AU - Kivikoski, Harri

AU - Laaksonen, Rainer

PY - 2008

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N2 - This report describes a quality assurance chain for the bentonite material acquisition for a nuclear waste disposal repository. Chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical methods, which may be applied in quality control of bentonite are shortly reviewed. As a case study, many of the presented control studies were performed for six different bentonite samples, including Wyoming bentonite "MX-80" and three Indian bentonites (Kutch, Ashapura). Chemical analysis is a very reliable research method to control material homogeneity, because the accuracy and repeatability of the study method is extremely good. Accurate mineralogical study of bentonite is a complicated task. X-ray diffractometry is the best method to identify smectite minerals, but quantitative analysis of smectite content remains uncertain. To obtain a better quantitative analysis, development of techniques based on automatic image analysis of SEM images is proposed. General characteristics of bentonite can be obtained by rapid indicator tests, which can be done on the place of reception. These tests are methylene blue test giving information on the cation exchange capacity, swelling index and determination of water absorption. Different methods were used in the determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. The results indicated differencies both between methodologies and between replicate determinations for the same material and method. Additional work should be done to improve the reliability and reproducibility of the methodology. Bentonite contains water in different modes. Thus, different determination methods are used in bentonite studies and they give somewhat dissimilar results. Clay research use frequently the so-called consistency tests (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index). This study method does, however, not seem to be very practical in quality control of bentonite. Therefore only determination of liquid limit with fall-cone method is recommended for quality control.

AB - This report describes a quality assurance chain for the bentonite material acquisition for a nuclear waste disposal repository. Chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical methods, which may be applied in quality control of bentonite are shortly reviewed. As a case study, many of the presented control studies were performed for six different bentonite samples, including Wyoming bentonite "MX-80" and three Indian bentonites (Kutch, Ashapura). Chemical analysis is a very reliable research method to control material homogeneity, because the accuracy and repeatability of the study method is extremely good. Accurate mineralogical study of bentonite is a complicated task. X-ray diffractometry is the best method to identify smectite minerals, but quantitative analysis of smectite content remains uncertain. To obtain a better quantitative analysis, development of techniques based on automatic image analysis of SEM images is proposed. General characteristics of bentonite can be obtained by rapid indicator tests, which can be done on the place of reception. These tests are methylene blue test giving information on the cation exchange capacity, swelling index and determination of water absorption. Different methods were used in the determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. The results indicated differencies both between methodologies and between replicate determinations for the same material and method. Additional work should be done to improve the reliability and reproducibility of the methodology. Bentonite contains water in different modes. Thus, different determination methods are used in bentonite studies and they give somewhat dissimilar results. Clay research use frequently the so-called consistency tests (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index). This study method does, however, not seem to be very practical in quality control of bentonite. Therefore only determination of liquid limit with fall-cone method is recommended for quality control.

KW - bentonite

KW - chemical composition

KW - clay mineralogy

KW - X-ray diffractometry

KW - cation exchange capacity

KW - thermal analysis

KW - swelling index

KW - quality assurance system

M3 - Report

T3 - Posiva Working Report

BT - Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material

PB - Posiva

ER -

Ahonen L, Korkeakoski P, Tiljander M, Kivikoski H, Laaksonen R. Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material. Posiva , 2008. 122 p. (Posiva Working Report; No. 2008-33).