Quantification of the amphetamine content in seized street samples by raman spectroscopy

Erja Katainen, Matti Elomaa, Ulla-Maija Laakkonen, Erkki Sippola, Pentti Niemelä, Janne Suhonen, Kristiina Järvinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


A Raman spectroscopy method for determining the drug content of street samples of amphetamine was developed by dissolving samples in an acidic solution containing an internal standard (sodium dihydrogen phosphate).
The Raman spectra of the samples were measured with a CDD‐Raman spectrometer. Two Raman quantification methods were used: (1) relative peak heights of characteristic signals of the amphetamine and the internal standard; and (2) multivariate calibration by partial least squares (PLS) based on second derivative of the spectra.
For the determination of the peak height ratio, the spectra were baseline corrected and the peak height ratio (hamphetamine at 994 cm−1/hinternal standard at 880 cm−1) was calculated. For the PLS analysis, the wave number interval of 1300–630 cm−1 (348 data points) was chosen.
No manual baseline correction was performed, but the spectra were differentiated twice to obtain their second derivatives, which were further analyzed. The Raman results were well in line with validated reference LC results when the Raman samples were analyzed within 2 h after dissolution.
The present results clearly show that Raman spectroscopy is a good tool for rapid (acquisition time 1 min) and accurate quantitative analysis of street samples that contain illicit drugs and unknown adulterants and impurities
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-92
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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