Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET)

Marjo Tuomainen (Corresponding Author), Olli Kärkkäinen, Jukka Leppänen, Seppo Auriola, Marko Lehtonen, Markku J. Savolainen, Kjeld Hermansen, Ulf Risérus, Björn Åkesson, Inga Thorsdottir, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Matti Uusitupa, Kaisa Poutanen, Ursula Schwab, Kati Hanhineva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study. METHODS: The SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health. RESULTS: Pipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = -0.300; P < 0.01, r = -0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = -0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = -0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.241 at the end). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1108-1118
Number of pages11
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume110
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Betaine
Biomarkers
Fasting
Diet
Fruit
Health
Fishes
Insulin
Food
Control Groups
Interleukin-1 Receptors
Dietary Fiber
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Milk
Fats
Inflammation
Lipids
Healthy Diet
Serum

Keywords

  • betainized compounds
  • fiber
  • healthy Nordic diet
  • LC-QQQ-MS
  • pipecolic acid betaine
  • quantitative
  • rye
  • whole grain

Cite this

Tuomainen, Marjo ; Kärkkäinen, Olli ; Leppänen, Jukka ; Auriola, Seppo ; Lehtonen, Marko ; Savolainen, Markku J. ; Hermansen, Kjeld ; Risérus, Ulf ; Åkesson, Björn ; Thorsdottir, Inga ; Kolehmainen, Marjukka ; Uusitupa, Matti ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Schwab, Ursula ; Hanhineva, Kati. / Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET). In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 110, No. 5. pp. 1108-1118.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Recently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study. METHODS: The SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health. RESULTS: Pipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = -0.300; P < 0.01, r = -0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = -0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = -0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.241 at the end). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.",
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author = "Marjo Tuomainen and Olli K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen and Jukka Lepp{\"a}nen and Seppo Auriola and Marko Lehtonen and Savolainen, {Markku J.} and Kjeld Hermansen and Ulf Ris{\'e}rus and Bj{\"o}rn {\AA}kesson and Inga Thorsdottir and Marjukka Kolehmainen and Matti Uusitupa and Kaisa Poutanen and Ursula Schwab and Kati Hanhineva",
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Tuomainen, M, Kärkkäinen, O, Leppänen, J, Auriola, S, Lehtonen, M, Savolainen, MJ, Hermansen, K, Risérus, U, Åkesson, B, Thorsdottir, I, Kolehmainen, M, Uusitupa, M, Poutanen, K, Schwab, U & Hanhineva, K 2019, 'Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET)', The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1108-1118. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz179

Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET). / Tuomainen, Marjo (Corresponding Author); Kärkkäinen, Olli; Leppänen, Jukka; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; Savolainen, Markku J.; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Åkesson, Björn; Thorsdottir, Inga; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Uusitupa, Matti; Poutanen, Kaisa; Schwab, Ursula; Hanhineva, Kati.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 110, No. 5, 28.08.2019, p. 1108-1118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET)

AU - Tuomainen, Marjo

AU - Kärkkäinen, Olli

AU - Leppänen, Jukka

AU - Auriola, Seppo

AU - Lehtonen, Marko

AU - Savolainen, Markku J.

AU - Hermansen, Kjeld

AU - Risérus, Ulf

AU - Åkesson, Björn

AU - Thorsdottir, Inga

AU - Kolehmainen, Marjukka

AU - Uusitupa, Matti

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Schwab, Ursula

AU - Hanhineva, Kati

PY - 2019/8/28

Y1 - 2019/8/28

N2 - BACKGROUND: Recently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study. METHODS: The SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health. RESULTS: Pipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = -0.300; P < 0.01, r = -0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = -0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = -0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.241 at the end). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

AB - BACKGROUND: Recently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study. METHODS: The SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health. RESULTS: Pipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = -0.300; P < 0.01, r = -0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = -0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = -0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.241 at the end). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

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KW - fiber

KW - healthy Nordic diet

KW - LC-QQQ-MS

KW - pipecolic acid betaine

KW - quantitative

KW - rye

KW - whole grain

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