Quantities of phenolic compounds and their impacts on the perceived flavour attributes of rye grain

Raija-Liisa Heiniö (Corresponding Author), Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen, Olavi Myllymäki, J.-M. Pihlava, H. Adlercreutz, S.-M. Heinonen, Kaisa Poutanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    96 Citations (Scopus)


    The use of whole grain rye products, beneficial to one's health, could be substantially extended if the typical intensively bitter flavour of rye could be modified without losing the characteristic rye-like flavour. The aim of the study was to evaluate the contribution of non-volatile phenolic compounds on the perceived flavour. Rye grain was milled into five milling fractions. The levels of phenolic compounds, i.e. the phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols and lignans, of the fractions were analysed and related statistically to sensory flavour profiles by partial least-squares (PLS) regression. The non-bound (free) phenolic acids are suggested to be most flavour-active. Cereal and intense flavour and aftertaste were related to vanillic and veratric acids, alkylresorcinol C23:0, and other lignans except for pinoresinol. The perceived bitterness of the bran fractions was suggested to result from pinoresinol and syringic acid. Sinapic and ferulic acids, alkylresorcinols, except for alkylresorcinol C23:0, and syringaresinol seemed to cause the germ-like flavour. Phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols and lignans distributed with a similar pattern in the rye grain as the flavour attributes: the phenolic compounds were clearly located in the outer bran fractions being intense in flavour, but not in the mild-tasting inner layers of the grain.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)566 - 575
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Cereal Science
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Rye
    • Milling fractionation
    • Flavour
    • Phenolic compounds


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