Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

Jorge Paredes Garibay, Jarno J.J. Kaakkunen, Raimo Penttilä, Jennifer Harris, John McIntyre, Petri Laakso, Veli Kujanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S29207-1-7
JournalJournal of Laser Applications
Volume27
Issue numberS2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Alkaline fuel cells
fuel cells
sintering
Mirrors
Sintering
mirrors
Nickel
Lasers
Substrates
nickel
lasers
Powders
manufacturing
automatic frequency control
viability
foams
Foams
YAG lasers
Nitrogen
mechanical properties

Keywords

  • laser sintering
  • alkaline fuel cell
  • integrating mirror

Cite this

Garibay, J. P., Kaakkunen, J. J. J., Penttilä, R., Harris, J., McIntyre, J., Laakso, P., & Kujanpää, V. (2015). Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Journal of Laser Applications, 27(S2), S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393
Garibay, Jorge Paredes ; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J. ; Penttilä, Raimo ; Harris, Jennifer ; McIntyre, John ; Laakso, Petri ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In: Journal of Laser Applications. 2015 ; Vol. 27, No. S2. pp. S29207-1-7.
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abstract = "Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7{\%}) compared to the in-house standard.",
keywords = "laser sintering, alkaline fuel cell, integrating mirror",
author = "Garibay, {Jorge Paredes} and Kaakkunen, {Jarno J.J.} and Raimo Penttil{\"a} and Jennifer Harris and John McIntyre and Petri Laakso and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a}",
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Garibay, JP, Kaakkunen, JJJ, Penttilä, R, Harris, J, McIntyre, J, Laakso, P & Kujanpää, V 2015, 'Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror', Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 27, no. S2, pp. S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393

Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. / Garibay, Jorge Paredes; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.; Penttilä, Raimo; Harris, Jennifer; McIntyre, John; Laakso, Petri; Kujanpää, Veli.

In: Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 27, No. S2, 2015, p. S29207-1-7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

AU - Garibay, Jorge Paredes

AU - Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.

AU - Penttilä, Raimo

AU - Harris, Jennifer

AU - McIntyre, John

AU - Laakso, Petri

AU - Kujanpää, Veli

N1 - Project code: 73525

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.

AB - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.

KW - laser sintering

KW - alkaline fuel cell

KW - integrating mirror

U2 - 10.2351/1.4906393

DO - 10.2351/1.4906393

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - S29207-1-7

JO - Journal of Laser Applications

JF - Journal of Laser Applications

SN - 1042-346X

IS - S2

ER -

Garibay JP, Kaakkunen JJJ, Penttilä R, Harris J, McIntyre J, Laakso P et al. Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Journal of Laser Applications. 2015;27(S2):S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393