Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

Jorge Paredes Garibay, Jarno J.J. Kaakkunen, Raimo Penttilä, Jennifer Harris, John McIntyre, Petri Laakso, Veli Kujanpää

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)S29207-1-7
    JournalJournal of Laser Applications
    Volume27
    Issue numberS2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Alkaline fuel cells
    fuel cells
    sintering
    Mirrors
    Sintering
    mirrors
    Nickel
    Lasers
    Substrates
    nickel
    lasers
    Powders
    manufacturing
    automatic frequency control
    viability
    foams
    Foams
    YAG lasers
    Nitrogen
    mechanical properties

    Keywords

    • laser sintering
    • alkaline fuel cell
    • integrating mirror

    Cite this

    Garibay, J. P., Kaakkunen, J. J. J., Penttilä, R., Harris, J., McIntyre, J., Laakso, P., & Kujanpää, V. (2015). Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Journal of Laser Applications, 27(S2), S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393
    Garibay, Jorge Paredes ; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J. ; Penttilä, Raimo ; Harris, Jennifer ; McIntyre, John ; Laakso, Petri ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In: Journal of Laser Applications. 2015 ; Vol. 27, No. S2. pp. S29207-1-7.
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    title = "Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror",
    abstract = "Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7{\%}) compared to the in-house standard.",
    keywords = "laser sintering, alkaline fuel cell, integrating mirror",
    author = "Garibay, {Jorge Paredes} and Kaakkunen, {Jarno J.J.} and Raimo Penttil{\"a} and Jennifer Harris and John McIntyre and Petri Laakso and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a}",
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    Garibay, JP, Kaakkunen, JJJ, Penttilä, R, Harris, J, McIntyre, J, Laakso, P & Kujanpää, V 2015, 'Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror', Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 27, no. S2, pp. S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393

    Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. / Garibay, Jorge Paredes; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.; Penttilä, Raimo; Harris, Jennifer; McIntyre, John; Laakso, Petri; Kujanpää, Veli.

    In: Journal of Laser Applications, Vol. 27, No. S2, 2015, p. S29207-1-7.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

    AU - Garibay, Jorge Paredes

    AU - Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.

    AU - Penttilä, Raimo

    AU - Harris, Jennifer

    AU - McIntyre, John

    AU - Laakso, Petri

    AU - Kujanpää, Veli

    N1 - Project code: 73525

    PY - 2015

    Y1 - 2015

    N2 - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.

    AB - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore, improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3?mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60?mm wide and 0.3?mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8?mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power, etc., and postsintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results, the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25?mV (about 7%) compared to the in-house standard.

    KW - laser sintering

    KW - alkaline fuel cell

    KW - integrating mirror

    U2 - 10.2351/1.4906393

    DO - 10.2351/1.4906393

    M3 - Article

    VL - 27

    SP - S29207-1-7

    JO - Journal of Laser Applications

    JF - Journal of Laser Applications

    SN - 1042-346X

    IS - S2

    ER -

    Garibay JP, Kaakkunen JJJ, Penttilä R, Harris J, McIntyre J, Laakso P et al. Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Journal of Laser Applications. 2015;27(S2):S29207-1-7. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4906393