Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

Jorge Paredes Garibay, Jarno J.J. Kaakkunen, Raimo Penttilä, Jennifer Harris, John McIntery, Petri Laakso, Veli Kujanpää

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCongress Proceedings
    Subtitle of host publication 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014
    PublisherLaser Institute of America
    Pages800-808
    ISBN (Print)9781940168029
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014 - San Diego, United States
    Duration: 19 Oct 201423 Oct 2014

    Conference

    Conference33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014
    CountryUnited States
    CitySan Diego
    Period19/10/1423/10/14

    Fingerprint

    fuel cells
    sintering
    mirrors
    nickel
    lasers
    manufacturing
    automatic frequency control
    viability
    foams
    YAG lasers
    mechanical properties
    costs
    nitrogen
    fabrication
    electrodes
    cells

    Cite this

    Garibay, J. P., Kaakkunen, J. J. J., Penttilä, R., Harris, J., McIntery, J., Laakso, P., & Kujanpää, V. (2014). Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014 (pp. 800-808). Laser Institute of America.
    Garibay, Jorge Paredes ; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J. ; Penttilä, Raimo ; Harris, Jennifer ; McIntery, John ; Laakso, Petri ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, 2014. pp. 800-808
    @inproceedings{b24a4be11b4f4db883700ad955d2a020,
    title = "Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror",
    abstract = "Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 {\%}) compared to the in-house standard.",
    author = "Garibay, {Jorge Paredes} and Kaakkunen, {Jarno J.J.} and Raimo Penttil{\"a} and Jennifer Harris and John McIntery and Petri Laakso and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a}",
    year = "2014",
    language = "English",
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    Garibay, JP, Kaakkunen, JJJ, Penttilä, R, Harris, J, McIntery, J, Laakso, P & Kujanpää, V 2014, Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. in Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, pp. 800-808, 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014, San Diego, United States, 19/10/14.

    Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. / Garibay, Jorge Paredes; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.; Penttilä, Raimo; Harris, Jennifer; McIntery, John; Laakso, Petri; Kujanpää, Veli.

    Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, 2014. p. 800-808.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

    AU - Garibay, Jorge Paredes

    AU - Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.

    AU - Penttilä, Raimo

    AU - Harris, Jennifer

    AU - McIntery, John

    AU - Laakso, Petri

    AU - Kujanpää, Veli

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.

    AB - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.

    UR - https://www.lia.org/store/laser-conference-proceedings/icaleo

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 9781940168029

    SP - 800

    EP - 808

    BT - Congress Proceedings

    PB - Laser Institute of America

    ER -

    Garibay JP, Kaakkunen JJJ, Penttilä R, Harris J, McIntery J, Laakso P et al. Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America. 2014. p. 800-808