Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

Jorge Paredes Garibay, Jarno J.J. Kaakkunen, Raimo Penttilä, Jennifer Harris, John McIntery, Petri Laakso, Veli Kujanpää

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCongress Proceedings
Subtitle of host publication 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014
PublisherLaser Institute of America
Pages800-808
ISBN (Print)9781940168029
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 19 Oct 201423 Oct 2014

Conference

Conference33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego
Period19/10/1423/10/14

Fingerprint

fuel cells
sintering
mirrors
nickel
lasers
manufacturing
automatic frequency control
viability
foams
YAG lasers
mechanical properties
costs
nitrogen
fabrication
electrodes
cells

Cite this

Garibay, J. P., Kaakkunen, J. J. J., Penttilä, R., Harris, J., McIntery, J., Laakso, P., & Kujanpää, V. (2014). Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014 (pp. 800-808). Laser Institute of America.
Garibay, Jorge Paredes ; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J. ; Penttilä, Raimo ; Harris, Jennifer ; McIntery, John ; Laakso, Petri ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, 2014. pp. 800-808
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title = "Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror",
abstract = "Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 {\%}) compared to the in-house standard.",
author = "Garibay, {Jorge Paredes} and Kaakkunen, {Jarno J.J.} and Raimo Penttil{\"a} and Jennifer Harris and John McIntery and Petri Laakso and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a}",
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Garibay, JP, Kaakkunen, JJJ, Penttilä, R, Harris, J, McIntery, J, Laakso, P & Kujanpää, V 2014, Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. in Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, pp. 800-808, 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014, San Diego, United States, 19/10/14.

Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. / Garibay, Jorge Paredes; Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.; Penttilä, Raimo; Harris, Jennifer; McIntery, John; Laakso, Petri; Kujanpää, Veli.

Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America, 2014. p. 800-808.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror

AU - Garibay, Jorge Paredes

AU - Kaakkunen, Jarno J.J.

AU - Penttilä, Raimo

AU - Harris, Jennifer

AU - McIntery, John

AU - Laakso, Petri

AU - Kujanpää, Veli

PY - 2014

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N2 - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.

AB - Nickel screens and foams are commonly used in alkaline fuel cell (AFC) as substrates to support electrodes. The methods used for fabrication of these substrates impact significantly on the viability, with the material and processing cost of nickel comprising almost one third of the total. Therefore improvements to the manufacturing speed of substrates would increase affordability. Currently, state of the art commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) systems are limited to a volumetric manufacturing speed of 1-3 mm3/s. This study describes a novel technique that multiplies the sintering speed of nickel AFC substrates. The novel technique is based on an integrating mirror, which creates a homogenized 60 mm wide and 0.3 mm long beam from a Nd:YAG laser, and a 0.8 mm thick nickel powder layer in a nitrogen environment. The influence of the nickel powder characteristics, and sintering parameters, as velocity, laser power etc., and post-sintering treatments of the samples on the mechanical properties of the substrates were studied. Based on experimental results the sintering speed could be multiplied up to a factor of 150 compared to the standard laser sintering speed. Additionally, because structure of the substrate has a significant impact on cell performance, a case study was defined to present the performance and characteristics of the sintered substrates on AFCs. Laser sintered substrates show promise, exhibiting a small performance drop of less than 25 mV (about 7 %) compared to the in-house standard.

UR - https://www.lia.org/store/laser-conference-proceedings/icaleo

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 9781940168029

SP - 800

EP - 808

BT - Congress Proceedings

PB - Laser Institute of America

ER -

Garibay JP, Kaakkunen JJJ, Penttilä R, Harris J, McIntery J, Laakso P et al. Rapid laser sintering of alkaline fuel cell substrates using integrating mirror. In Congress Proceedings: 33rd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2014. Laser Institute of America. 2014. p. 800-808