Reactive laser interference patterning on titanium and zinc in high pressure CO2

Amandeep Singh (Corresponding Author), Tero Kumpulainen, Kimmo Lahtonen, Saara Söyrinki, Jorma Vihinen, Erkki Levänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is a versatile technique for surface patterning that enables formation of micro-nano sized periodic structures on top of the target material. In this study, DLIP in high pressure, supercritical and liquid CO2 by 4-beam DLIP was used to pattern titanium and zinc targets. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the patterned surfaces. Field emission SEM analysis showed presence of ordered uniform donut ring pattern with hollow centers for both titanium and zinc with a period slightly under 3 µm while topographical images from atomic force microscopy revealed donut rings protruding outwards typically around 200 nm from target surface and consisted of a crevice at the center with a depth typically around 300 nm and 250 nm for titanium and zinc target, respectively. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis, this is the first study to report formation of TiO2, TiC, ZnCO3, and zinc hydroxy carbonate on the pattern by DLIP in supercritical and liquid CO2 for titanium and zinc targets. Pressurized CO2 is demonstrated as a promising environment with mirror-based DLIP system for reactive patterning. Due to the superior transport properties and solvent power of supercritical CO2, the current study opens possibilities for reactive patterning in environments that may not have been previously possible.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15770
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This work was supported by EU Commission’s Horizon 2020 project “NanoStencil” – Grant number 767285. The authors acknowledge Innolas Gmbh for the training of laser, Arnold Ismailov at Tampere University for assistance in microscopy, and Turkka Salminen at Tampere Microscopy Centre for atomic force microscopy. This work made use of Tampere Microscopy Centre facilities at Tampere University.


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