Real-time observation of discrete Andreev tunneling events

V.F. Maisi (Corresponding Author), O.-P. Saira, Yu.A. Pashkin, J.S. Tsai, D.V. Averin, J.P. Pekola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


We provide a direct proof of two-electron Andreev transitions in a superconductor–normal-metal tunnel junction by detecting them in a real-time electron counting experiment. Our results are consistent with ballistic Andreev transport with an order of magnitude higher rate than expected for a uniform barrier, suggesting that only part of the interface is effectively contributing to the transport. These findings are quantitatively supported by our direct current measurements in single-electron transistors with similar tunnel barriers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number217003
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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