Realisation of a quantum current standard at liquid helium temperature with sub-ppm reproducibility

Stephen P Giblin (Corresponding Author), Emma Mykkänen, Antti Kemppinen, Pekka Immonen, Antti Manninen, Máté Jenei, Mikko Möttönen, Gento Yamahata, Akira Fujiwara, Masaya Kataoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


A silicon electron pump operating at the temperature of liquid helium has demonstrated repeatable operation with sub-ppm accuracy. The pump current, approximately 168 pA, is measured by three laboratories, and the measurements agree with the expected current ef within the uncertainties which range from 0.2 ppm to 1.3 ppm. All the measurements are carried out in zero applied magnetic field, and the pump drive signal is a sine wave. The combination of simple operating conditions with high accuracy demonstrates the possibility that an electron pump can operate as a current standard in a National Measurement Institute. We also discuss other practical aspects of using the electron pump as a current standard, such as testing its robustness to changes in the control parameters, and using a rapid tuning procedure to locate the optimal operation point.
Original languageEnglish
Article number025013
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • electron pump
  • quantised charge pumping
  • SI base units


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