Recent trends in gypsum research

Leena Sarvaranta, Harri Kaasinen

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

Gypsum is useful as an industrial material because it readily loses its water of hydration when heated, producing partially or totally dehydrated calcined gypsum. When water is added, this calcined gypsum reverts to the original dihydrate - the set and hardened gypsum product. Gypsum building materials comprise machine applied plaster, plasterboard and flow screed plaster. A gypsum calcining plant may use either chemical or natural gypsum as raw material. Natural gypsum has traditionally been the most important, but industrial gypsum by products are gaining increased importance for mainly environmental reasons. Phosphogypsum is a by product of the manufacture of wet phosphoric acid, typically from a fertilizer manufacturing plant. Over 120 130 Mt/a of phosphogypsum are produced worldwide. This quantity exceeds by far the world's annual demand for natural gypsum and anhydrite. Roughly 1 Mt/a of phosphogypsum is produced in Finland. In coming years increasingly quantities of gypsum from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) will become available. In Finland the yearly amount of flue gas gypsum is estimated to reach up to 200 000 t/a by 1994, and in Germany up to 3 Mt/a by 1995. Other sources of gypsum raw material include anhydrite from the production of fluorspar, gypsum from the treatment of sulphate containing waste waters, and gypsum scrap from the ceramic industry and metal foundries. Comparative studies of flue gas gypsum and natural gypsum are reviewed. Flue gas gypsums contain very fine particles (< 100 µm), while crushed natural gypsums have broader particle size distributions. Flue gas gypsums require more water in the production stage than natural gypsums and undergo slower dehydration. The hydration behaviour of both types is similar. Flue gas gypsums are harder than natural gypsums. Different methods of gypsum modification are reviewed. Unmodified gypsum has poor moisture resistance and is suitable only for indoor use. Gypsum can be reinforced with glass, cellulose or polymer fibres. Polymer dispersions can be used to control the set time and fluidity of the plaster and to increase the moisture resistance. Light weight gypsum boards can be produced using light weight aggregates (perlite, polystyrene), fibres or bubbled surfactants. By using phase change materials (PCM) it might be possible to increase the heat storage capacity and moisture resistance of gypsum board. Possibilities of using calcium sulphite or calcium sulphate as admixture in hydraulic or polymeric matrices are not discussed in the present context.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages27
ISBN (Print)951-38-4477-3
Publication statusPublished - 1994
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes
Number1543
ISSN1235-0605

Fingerprint

gypsum
trend
moisture
anhydrite
hydration
polymer
calcium
sulfate
perlite

Keywords

  • gypsum
  • gypsum cements
  • plaster
  • trends
  • research
  • construction materials
  • construction industry
  • building components
  • raw materials
  • dehydration
  • comparison
  • hydration
  • mechanical properties
  • physical properties
  • hardening (materials)
  • modification
  • fiber reinforcement
  • polymers
  • glass fibers
  • cellulose
  • wallboard
  • ceiling materials
  • flue gases
  • floors

Cite this

Sarvaranta, L., & Kaasinen, H. (1994). Recent trends in gypsum research. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, No. 1543
Sarvaranta, Leena ; Kaasinen, Harri. / Recent trends in gypsum research. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 27 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1543).
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Sarvaranta, L & Kaasinen, H 1994, Recent trends in gypsum research. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, no. 1543, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Recent trends in gypsum research. / Sarvaranta, Leena; Kaasinen, Harri.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 27 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1543).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Recent trends in gypsum research

AU - Sarvaranta, Leena

AU - Kaasinen, Harri

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - Gypsum is useful as an industrial material because it readily loses its water of hydration when heated, producing partially or totally dehydrated calcined gypsum. When water is added, this calcined gypsum reverts to the original dihydrate - the set and hardened gypsum product. Gypsum building materials comprise machine applied plaster, plasterboard and flow screed plaster. A gypsum calcining plant may use either chemical or natural gypsum as raw material. Natural gypsum has traditionally been the most important, but industrial gypsum by products are gaining increased importance for mainly environmental reasons. Phosphogypsum is a by product of the manufacture of wet phosphoric acid, typically from a fertilizer manufacturing plant. Over 120 130 Mt/a of phosphogypsum are produced worldwide. This quantity exceeds by far the world's annual demand for natural gypsum and anhydrite. Roughly 1 Mt/a of phosphogypsum is produced in Finland. In coming years increasingly quantities of gypsum from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) will become available. In Finland the yearly amount of flue gas gypsum is estimated to reach up to 200 000 t/a by 1994, and in Germany up to 3 Mt/a by 1995. Other sources of gypsum raw material include anhydrite from the production of fluorspar, gypsum from the treatment of sulphate containing waste waters, and gypsum scrap from the ceramic industry and metal foundries. Comparative studies of flue gas gypsum and natural gypsum are reviewed. Flue gas gypsums contain very fine particles (< 100 µm), while crushed natural gypsums have broader particle size distributions. Flue gas gypsums require more water in the production stage than natural gypsums and undergo slower dehydration. The hydration behaviour of both types is similar. Flue gas gypsums are harder than natural gypsums. Different methods of gypsum modification are reviewed. Unmodified gypsum has poor moisture resistance and is suitable only for indoor use. Gypsum can be reinforced with glass, cellulose or polymer fibres. Polymer dispersions can be used to control the set time and fluidity of the plaster and to increase the moisture resistance. Light weight gypsum boards can be produced using light weight aggregates (perlite, polystyrene), fibres or bubbled surfactants. By using phase change materials (PCM) it might be possible to increase the heat storage capacity and moisture resistance of gypsum board. Possibilities of using calcium sulphite or calcium sulphate as admixture in hydraulic or polymeric matrices are not discussed in the present context.

AB - Gypsum is useful as an industrial material because it readily loses its water of hydration when heated, producing partially or totally dehydrated calcined gypsum. When water is added, this calcined gypsum reverts to the original dihydrate - the set and hardened gypsum product. Gypsum building materials comprise machine applied plaster, plasterboard and flow screed plaster. A gypsum calcining plant may use either chemical or natural gypsum as raw material. Natural gypsum has traditionally been the most important, but industrial gypsum by products are gaining increased importance for mainly environmental reasons. Phosphogypsum is a by product of the manufacture of wet phosphoric acid, typically from a fertilizer manufacturing plant. Over 120 130 Mt/a of phosphogypsum are produced worldwide. This quantity exceeds by far the world's annual demand for natural gypsum and anhydrite. Roughly 1 Mt/a of phosphogypsum is produced in Finland. In coming years increasingly quantities of gypsum from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) will become available. In Finland the yearly amount of flue gas gypsum is estimated to reach up to 200 000 t/a by 1994, and in Germany up to 3 Mt/a by 1995. Other sources of gypsum raw material include anhydrite from the production of fluorspar, gypsum from the treatment of sulphate containing waste waters, and gypsum scrap from the ceramic industry and metal foundries. Comparative studies of flue gas gypsum and natural gypsum are reviewed. Flue gas gypsums contain very fine particles (< 100 µm), while crushed natural gypsums have broader particle size distributions. Flue gas gypsums require more water in the production stage than natural gypsums and undergo slower dehydration. The hydration behaviour of both types is similar. Flue gas gypsums are harder than natural gypsums. Different methods of gypsum modification are reviewed. Unmodified gypsum has poor moisture resistance and is suitable only for indoor use. Gypsum can be reinforced with glass, cellulose or polymer fibres. Polymer dispersions can be used to control the set time and fluidity of the plaster and to increase the moisture resistance. Light weight gypsum boards can be produced using light weight aggregates (perlite, polystyrene), fibres or bubbled surfactants. By using phase change materials (PCM) it might be possible to increase the heat storage capacity and moisture resistance of gypsum board. Possibilities of using calcium sulphite or calcium sulphate as admixture in hydraulic or polymeric matrices are not discussed in the present context.

KW - gypsum

KW - gypsum cements

KW - plaster

KW - trends

KW - research

KW - construction materials

KW - construction industry

KW - building components

KW - raw materials

KW - dehydration

KW - comparison

KW - hydration

KW - mechanical properties

KW - physical properties

KW - hardening (materials)

KW - modification

KW - fiber reinforcement

KW - polymers

KW - glass fibers

KW - cellulose

KW - wallboard

KW - ceiling materials

KW - flue gases

KW - floors

M3 - Report

SN - 951-38-4477-3

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes

BT - Recent trends in gypsum research

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Sarvaranta L, Kaasinen H. Recent trends in gypsum research. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 27 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1543).