Recycled fibres and fibre sludge as reinforcement materials in injection moulded PP and PLA composites

Elina Pääkkönen (Corresponding Author), Lisa Wikström, Heidi Peltola, Kyösti Valta, Elias Retulainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Wood flour or sawdust is often used as filler in conventional wood plastic composite (WPC) materials. However, there has been an increasing interest to the use of wood pulp fibres in reinforced plastic applications, because they can provide enhanced strength properties and better biodegradability characteristics for the composite. This research compares the effect of recycled fibres or side streams of paper as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) or polypropylene (PP) composites. Fibre material from liquid packaging board, non-deinked old newspapers and fibre sludge from recycling processes are compared with virgin softwood kraft pulp fibres. Composites were produced by melt processing to a fibre content of 30 wt.% (or 10 wt.% fibre sludge), and the mechanical properties were investigated. Recycled fibres provided comparable, or even higher, plastic reinforcement than virgin softwood fibres. In polypropylene composites, the differences in mechanical properties between different fibre types were relatively small. Fibre sludge decreased the mechanical performance of composites but can be considered as cheap filler in cases when mechanical properties are not crucial. The possibility to use low-cost materials like recovered paper or deinking sludge in wood plastic composites is an interesting option for future sustainable applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-122
JournalJournal of Bioresources and Bioproducts
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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polylactic acid
composite materials
polypropylenes
sludge
injection
wood plastic composites
pulp fiber
mechanical properties
filling materials
softwood
deinking
plastics
wood flour
wood pulp
kraft pulp
biodegradability
sawdust
fiber content
packaging
recycling

Cite this

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title = "Recycled fibres and fibre sludge as reinforcement materials in injection moulded PP and PLA composites",
abstract = "Wood flour or sawdust is often used as filler in conventional wood plastic composite (WPC) materials. However, there has been an increasing interest to the use of wood pulp fibres in reinforced plastic applications, because they can provide enhanced strength properties and better biodegradability characteristics for the composite. This research compares the effect of recycled fibres or side streams of paper as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) or polypropylene (PP) composites. Fibre material from liquid packaging board, non-deinked old newspapers and fibre sludge from recycling processes are compared with virgin softwood kraft pulp fibres. Composites were produced by melt processing to a fibre content of 30 wt.{\%} (or 10 wt.{\%} fibre sludge), and the mechanical properties were investigated. Recycled fibres provided comparable, or even higher, plastic reinforcement than virgin softwood fibres. In polypropylene composites, the differences in mechanical properties between different fibre types were relatively small. Fibre sludge decreased the mechanical performance of composites but can be considered as cheap filler in cases when mechanical properties are not crucial. The possibility to use low-cost materials like recovered paper or deinking sludge in wood plastic composites is an interesting option for future sustainable applications.",
author = "Elina P{\"a}{\"a}kk{\"o}nen and Lisa Wikstr{\"o}m and Heidi Peltola and Ky{\"o}sti Valta and Elias Retulainen",
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T1 - Recycled fibres and fibre sludge as reinforcement materials in injection moulded PP and PLA composites

AU - Pääkkönen, Elina

AU - Wikström, Lisa

AU - Peltola, Heidi

AU - Valta, Kyösti

AU - Retulainen, Elias

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Wood flour or sawdust is often used as filler in conventional wood plastic composite (WPC) materials. However, there has been an increasing interest to the use of wood pulp fibres in reinforced plastic applications, because they can provide enhanced strength properties and better biodegradability characteristics for the composite. This research compares the effect of recycled fibres or side streams of paper as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) or polypropylene (PP) composites. Fibre material from liquid packaging board, non-deinked old newspapers and fibre sludge from recycling processes are compared with virgin softwood kraft pulp fibres. Composites were produced by melt processing to a fibre content of 30 wt.% (or 10 wt.% fibre sludge), and the mechanical properties were investigated. Recycled fibres provided comparable, or even higher, plastic reinforcement than virgin softwood fibres. In polypropylene composites, the differences in mechanical properties between different fibre types were relatively small. Fibre sludge decreased the mechanical performance of composites but can be considered as cheap filler in cases when mechanical properties are not crucial. The possibility to use low-cost materials like recovered paper or deinking sludge in wood plastic composites is an interesting option for future sustainable applications.

AB - Wood flour or sawdust is often used as filler in conventional wood plastic composite (WPC) materials. However, there has been an increasing interest to the use of wood pulp fibres in reinforced plastic applications, because they can provide enhanced strength properties and better biodegradability characteristics for the composite. This research compares the effect of recycled fibres or side streams of paper as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) or polypropylene (PP) composites. Fibre material from liquid packaging board, non-deinked old newspapers and fibre sludge from recycling processes are compared with virgin softwood kraft pulp fibres. Composites were produced by melt processing to a fibre content of 30 wt.% (or 10 wt.% fibre sludge), and the mechanical properties were investigated. Recycled fibres provided comparable, or even higher, plastic reinforcement than virgin softwood fibres. In polypropylene composites, the differences in mechanical properties between different fibre types were relatively small. Fibre sludge decreased the mechanical performance of composites but can be considered as cheap filler in cases when mechanical properties are not crucial. The possibility to use low-cost materials like recovered paper or deinking sludge in wood plastic composites is an interesting option for future sustainable applications.

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