Reduction of FODMAP content by bioprocessing

Antti Nyyssölä (Corresponding Author), Simo Ellilä, Emilia Nordlund, Kaisa Poutanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Fermentable oligo- di- and mono-saccharides and polyols, abbreviated as FODMAP, are components of several plant-based foods as well as milk. The FODMAPs include fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, fructose, and sugar alcohols. Ingestion of FODMAPs may trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in people with functional bowel disorders, such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Scope and approach: Studies have shown that a low-FODMAP diet improves symptoms of IBS. However, restricting the intake of FODMAP-rich foods is problematic, since many of them are rich in components important for health, such as dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals. This review describes the possibility of targeted FODMAP removal from foods by bioprocessing. Since the source of majority of FODMAPs are plant-based foods, such as fruits, grains, pulses and vegetables, FODMAP reduction by bioprocessing is also of interest in terms of the transition to more plant-based diets. Key findings and conclusions: Levels of galacto-oligosaccharides, fructans and lactose can be significantly reduced by enzymatic treatment, fermentation and germination. Enzyme-aided FODMAP reduction is typically specific, whereas during fermentation and germination several enzymes are active, which may influence food characteristics via polymer degradation and metabolite formation. Enzymatic processing and fermentation can usually be implemented in hours, whereas germination is relatively slow process, taking days. Implications of targeted FODMAP reduction in foods by bioprocessing should be considered in particular from nutritional, sensory and tolerance perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-272
Number of pages16
JournalTrends in Food Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - May 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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