Reference architecture design and evaluation for digitalization of underground mining

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Digitalization of underground mining operations requires interaction and interoperability between multiple stakeholders and their technical systems. A reference architecture (RA) facilitating design of multi-stakeholder digital solutions for underground mining would be valuable design knowledge for mining industry digitalization activities and would facilitate the design of concrete architectures to the underground mining context. The main contribution of this work is RA design, which is missing in the current research literature. The RA has empirical foundation on the implementation architectures of two prototypes, which were demonstrated and evaluated in an underground mining environment. The prototypes were evaluated based on several design science research evaluation criteria (feasibility, efficiency, robustness, operability) for fulfilling architectural concerns of related stakeholders. Digital Twin-based modeling, MQTT-based messaging, high accuracy location monitoring of vehicles with Lidars, reliable communication with 5G SA network, and utilization of safety zones and safety messaging for enabling emergency stops were identified as important aspects for RA design. Digital Twin (DT)-based data models focusing on the modeling of mining site, moving vehicles, communication data, and related equipment for the underground mining context may be considered as an additional contribution of our study.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101238
JournalInternet of Things
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This research has been partly funded by Business Finland as part of the Next Generation Mining (NGMining) co-innovation project.


Dive into the research topics of 'Reference architecture design and evaluation for digitalization of underground mining'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this