Refining levels of collaboration to support the design and evaluation of human-robot interaction in the manufacturing industry

Iina Aaltonen (Corresponding Author), Timo Salmi, Ilari Marstio

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    The manufacturing industry has high expectations for the benefits of collaborative robots. The term collaborative robots, however, encompasses multiple levels of collaboration ranging from coexistence to joint object manipulation. We attempt to refine the levels of collaboration between human workers and collaborative robots by reviewing literature and using case study examples. Distinguishing between the different levels is important because of the requisite safety issues and for the purpose of designing and evaluating the worker aspects of human-robot interaction, e.g., acceptance and workflow. This work facilitates finding the best ways to implement future human-robot collaboration on the factory floor.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)93-98
    Number of pages6
    JournalProcedia CIRP
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    Event51st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, CIRP CMS 2018 - Stockholm, Sweden
    Duration: 16 May 201818 May 2018



    • coexistence
    • collaboration
    • collaborative robots
    • cooperation
    • evaluation
    • human worker
    • human-robot collaboration
    • levels of collaboration
    • safety

    Cite this