Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements

a. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, David Gomes Martins, Janne Häkli, Päivi Koivisto, M. Kärkkäinen, S. Mäkelä, Pekka Pursula, Pekka Rantakari, Markku Sipilä, Jussi Säily, Reijo Tuovinen, Arttu Luukanen, A.V. Räisänen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE 8362
    Subtitle of host publicationPassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV
    EditorsDavid A. Wikner
    PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
    ISBN (Print)978-0-8194-9040-7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventPassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV - Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    Duration: 26 Apr 2012 → …

    Publication series

    SeriesProceedings of SPIE
    Volume8362
    ISSN0277-786X

    Conference

    ConferencePassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV
    CountryUnited States
    CityBaltimore, Maryland
    Period26/04/12 → …

    Fingerprint

    beam steering
    microelectromechanical systems
    phase modulation
    waveguide antennas
    physical optics
    patch antennas
    simulation
    rangefinding
    genetic algorithms
    radar
    high voltages
    CMOS
    switches
    antennas
    conductors
    wafers
    optimization
    silicon
    electronics

    Keywords

    • imaging
    • microelectromechanical
    • millimeter-wave
    • millimeter-wave identification
    • radar
    • reflectarray

    Cite this

    Tamminen, A., Ala-Laurinaho, J., Gomes Martins, D., Häkli, J., Koivisto, P., Kärkkäinen, M., ... Räisänen, A. V. (2012). Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. In D. A. Wikner (Ed.), Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV [836205] International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 8362 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167
    Tamminen, a. ; Ala-Laurinaho, J. ; Gomes Martins, David ; Häkli, Janne ; Koivisto, Päivi ; Kärkkäinen, M. ; Mäkelä, S. ; Pursula, Pekka ; Rantakari, Pekka ; Sipilä, Markku ; Säily, Jussi ; Tuovinen, Reijo ; Luukanen, Arttu ; Räisänen, A.V. / Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application : Design, simulations, and measurements. Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. editor / David A. Wikner. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2012. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362).
    @inproceedings{8254c9e5b347419fad3ea8b8181d3d0d,
    title = "Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements",
    abstract = "Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.",
    keywords = "imaging, microelectromechanical, millimeter-wave, millimeter-wave identification, radar, reflectarray",
    author = "a. Tamminen and J. Ala-Laurinaho and {Gomes Martins}, David and Janne H{\"a}kli and P{\"a}ivi Koivisto and M. K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen and S. M{\"a}kel{\"a} and Pekka Pursula and Pekka Rantakari and Markku Sipil{\"a} and Jussi S{\"a}ily and Reijo Tuovinen and Arttu Luukanen and A.V. R{\"a}is{\"a}nen",
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    isbn = "978-0-8194-9040-7",
    series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
    publisher = "International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE",
    editor = "Wikner, {David A.}",
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    Tamminen, A, Ala-Laurinaho, J, Gomes Martins, D, Häkli, J, Koivisto, P, Kärkkäinen, M, Mäkelä, S, Pursula, P, Rantakari, P, Sipilä, M, Säily, J, Tuovinen, R, Luukanen, A & Räisänen, AV 2012, Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. in DA Wikner (ed.), Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV., 836205, International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 8362, Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 26/04/12. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167

    Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application : Design, simulations, and measurements. / Tamminen, a.; Ala-Laurinaho, J.; Gomes Martins, David; Häkli, Janne; Koivisto, Päivi; Kärkkäinen, M.; Mäkelä, S.; Pursula, Pekka; Rantakari, Pekka; Sipilä, Markku; Säily, Jussi; Tuovinen, Reijo; Luukanen, Arttu; Räisänen, A.V.

    Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. ed. / David A. Wikner. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2012. 836205 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Tamminen, a.

    AU - Ala-Laurinaho, J.

    AU - Gomes Martins, David

    AU - Häkli, Janne

    AU - Koivisto, Päivi

    AU - Kärkkäinen, M.

    AU - Mäkelä, S.

    AU - Pursula, Pekka

    AU - Rantakari, Pekka

    AU - Sipilä, Markku

    AU - Säily, Jussi

    AU - Tuovinen, Reijo

    AU - Luukanen, Arttu

    AU - Räisänen, A.V.

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    N2 - Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.

    AB - Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.

    KW - imaging

    KW - microelectromechanical

    KW - millimeter-wave

    KW - millimeter-wave identification

    KW - radar

    KW - reflectarray

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    DO - 10.1117/12.924167

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 978-0-8194-9040-7

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    Tamminen A, Ala-Laurinaho J, Gomes Martins D, Häkli J, Koivisto P, Kärkkäinen M et al. Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. In Wikner DA, editor, Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2012. 836205. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167