Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application

Design, simulations, and measurements

a. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, David Gomes Martins, Janne Häkli, Päivi Koivisto, M. Kärkkäinen, S. Mäkelä, Pekka Pursula, Pekka Rantakari, Markku Sipilä, Jussi Säily, Reijo Tuovinen, Arttu Luukanen, A.V. Räisänen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE 8362
Subtitle of host publicationPassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV
EditorsDavid A. Wikner
PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
ISBN (Print)978-0-8194-9040-7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventPassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV - Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Duration: 26 Apr 2012 → …

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
PublisherSPIE
Volume8362
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Conference

ConferencePassive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV
CountryUnited States
CityBaltimore, Maryland
Period26/04/12 → …

Fingerprint

beam steering
microelectromechanical systems
phase modulation
waveguide antennas
physical optics
patch antennas
simulation
rangefinding
genetic algorithms
radar
high voltages
CMOS
switches
antennas
conductors
wafers
optimization
silicon
electronics

Keywords

  • imaging
  • microelectromechanical
  • millimeter-wave
  • millimeter-wave identification
  • radar
  • reflectarray

Cite this

Tamminen, A., Ala-Laurinaho, J., Gomes Martins, D., Häkli, J., Koivisto, P., Kärkkäinen, M., ... Räisänen, A. V. (2012). Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. In D. A. Wikner (Ed.), Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV [836205] International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 8362 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167
Tamminen, a. ; Ala-Laurinaho, J. ; Gomes Martins, David ; Häkli, Janne ; Koivisto, Päivi ; Kärkkäinen, M. ; Mäkelä, S. ; Pursula, Pekka ; Rantakari, Pekka ; Sipilä, Markku ; Säily, Jussi ; Tuovinen, Reijo ; Luukanen, Arttu ; Räisänen, A.V. / Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application : Design, simulations, and measurements. Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. editor / David A. Wikner. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2012. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362).
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abstract = "Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.",
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Tamminen, A, Ala-Laurinaho, J, Gomes Martins, D, Häkli, J, Koivisto, P, Kärkkäinen, M, Mäkelä, S, Pursula, P, Rantakari, P, Sipilä, M, Säily, J, Tuovinen, R, Luukanen, A & Räisänen, AV 2012, Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. in DA Wikner (ed.), Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV., 836205, International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 8362, Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 26/04/12. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167

Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application : Design, simulations, and measurements. / Tamminen, a.; Ala-Laurinaho, J.; Gomes Martins, David; Häkli, Janne; Koivisto, Päivi; Kärkkäinen, M.; Mäkelä, S.; Pursula, Pekka; Rantakari, Pekka; Sipilä, Markku; Säily, Jussi; Tuovinen, Reijo; Luukanen, Arttu; Räisänen, A.V.

Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. ed. / David A. Wikner. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2012. 836205 (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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AU - Koivisto, Päivi

AU - Kärkkäinen, M.

AU - Mäkelä, S.

AU - Pursula, Pekka

AU - Rantakari, Pekka

AU - Sipilä, Markku

AU - Säily, Jussi

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N2 - Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.

AB - Development of a 120-GHz FMCW radar with a reflectarray as focusing element is described. The reflectarray is realized on a 150-mm silicon wafer and it has 3700 phase-modulating elements on it. The phase shifters have four discrete values to cover full phase modulation with 90° steps. The reflectarray element is realized with a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide patch antenna with a phase shifter coupled to it. The required phase modulation for each reflectarray element is determined with an in-house physical optics simulation combined with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The reflectarrays are developed in two stages. First, preliminary reflectarrays with static phase shifters have been manufactured and tested at 120-GHz antenna measurement range. The static reflectarrays are found to perform as designed in their capability to steer the beam to a desired direction and to a distance of 3 m. The reflectarrays have-3-dB beam width from 1.1° to 1.3° depending on the beam tilt. After the preliminary verification with the static phase shifters, the reflectarrays will be assembled together with actively controlled MEMS-based phase shifters. The MEMS switches are controlled with dedicated high-voltage CMOS electronics, forming a system-in-a-package (SiP). First, the MEMS phase shifters are modeled, are being fabricated, and will be measured separately to verify their phase-shifting capability.

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KW - microelectromechanical

KW - millimeter-wave

KW - millimeter-wave identification

KW - radar

KW - reflectarray

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M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-0-8194-9040-7

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

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PB - International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE

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Tamminen A, Ala-Laurinaho J, Gomes Martins D, Häkli J, Koivisto P, Kärkkäinen M et al. Reflectarray for 120-GHz beam steering application: Design, simulations, and measurements. In Wikner DA, editor, Proceedings of SPIE 8362: Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XV. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2012. 836205. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8362). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.924167