Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals

J O Zoppe, Maria Soledad Peresin, Y Habibi, R A Venditti, O J Rojas (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young’s modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1996-2004
Number of pages9
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Volume1
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Nanofibers
Cellulose
Nanocrystals
Fibers
Mechanical properties
Electrospinning
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Polymer matrix
polycaprolactone
Differential scanning calorimetry
Infrared spectroscopy
Hydrolysis
Reinforcement
Thermodynamic properties
Adhesion
Elastic moduli
Molecular weight
Scanning electron microscopy
Acids

Cite this

Zoppe, J. O., Peresin, M. S., Habibi, Y., Venditti, R. A., & Rojas, O. J. (2009). Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 1(9), 1996-2004. https://doi.org/10.1021/am9003705
Zoppe, J O ; Peresin, Maria Soledad ; Habibi, Y ; Venditti, R A ; Rojas, O J. / Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals. In: ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2009 ; Vol. 1, No. 9. pp. 1996-2004.
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abstract = "We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5{\%} unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young’s modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided.",
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Zoppe, JO, Peresin, MS, Habibi, Y, Venditti, RA & Rojas, OJ 2009, 'Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals', ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 1996-2004. https://doi.org/10.1021/am9003705

Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals. / Zoppe, J O; Peresin, Maria Soledad; Habibi, Y; Venditti, R A; Rojas, O J (Corresponding Author).

In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, Vol. 1, No. 9, 2009, p. 1996-2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reinforcing Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibers with Cellulose Nanocrystals

AU - Zoppe, J O

AU - Peresin, Maria Soledad

AU - Habibi, Y

AU - Venditti, R A

AU - Rojas, O J

PY - 2009

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N2 - We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young’s modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided.

AB - We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young’s modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided.

U2 - 10.1021/am9003705

DO - 10.1021/am9003705

M3 - Article

VL - 1

SP - 1996

EP - 2004

JO - ACS applied materials & interfaces

JF - ACS applied materials & interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 9

ER -