Release of 3H and 14C during sampling and speciation in activated concrete

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Characterisation of contaminated and activated decommissioning waste require sampling of the studied material for the analysis of different radionuclides. The volatility of 3H and 14C can lead to the loss of the analytes in sampling of solid materials since most often at least some heat is involved in the sampling technique. Especially 3H can be lost in cases when it is present as tritiated water (HTO) due to the evaporation of water even at low temperatures. Therefore, in this study, the 3H and 14C speciations are discussed. Consequently, a drilling sampling technique was developed in order to capture the released 3H and 14C in absorption solutions and measured using liquid scintillation counting. The sampling technique was tested on an activated concrete core. The collected samples were analysed for 3H and 14C (activity concentration and speciation) using a thermal oxidation technique. The results showed that a significant amount of 3H was released during sampling even though the majority of 3H was strongly bound in the activated concrete. The studied activated concrete did not contain measurable amount of 14C and therefore speciation studies were not possible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-865
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Issue number2
Early online date20 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • volatile radionuclides
  • characteriation of decommissioning waste
  • sampling
  • speciation
  • thermal oxidation
  • Characterisation of decommissioning waste
  • Volatile radionuclides
  • Thermal oxidation
  • Sampling
  • Speciation


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