Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets

Väinö Hintikka, Pekka Parvinen, Pekka Sten, Jukka Laukkanen, Jaakko Leppinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The possibilities of using mineral processing techniques to remediate rifle range soils were evaluated.The studied soils originated from two Finnish rifle ranges, Viikinmäki and Utti, and were heavily contaminated by lead- and copper-containing bullets and their disintegrated fine-grained weathering products.Most of the lead and copper in the soil samples is in the form of coarser particles, which can be easily recovered mechanically by combining wet sieving with consecutive gravity concentration stages.In this process, 83-85% of the total lead and 91-99% of the total copper can be recovered into a ca. 90% pure bullet product.The fine soil fraction contains 14-17% of the total lead, mainly as fine-grained carbona-ceous weathering products of the bullets, and 1-3% of the total copper.Due to the higher solubility of the lead carbonates and the high surface area of these particles, they form a significant source of contamination for the environment.Complex-forming leaching was used to recover the lead and copper from the fine soil fractions with recoveries of 95-98%.By combining the mechanical and leaching processes, lead and copper recoveries higher than 99.4% can be reached.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.)
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages237-244
ISBN (Electronic)951-38-5702-6
ISBN (Print)951-38-5701-8
Publication statusPublished - 2000
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternational Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology: ECOGEO 2000 - Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 4 Sep 20006 Sep 2000

Publication series

NameVTT Symposium
PublisherVTT
Number204
ISSN (Print)0357-9387
ISSN (Electronic)1455-0873

Conference

ConferenceInternational Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology
Abbreviated titleECOGEO 2000
CountryFinland
CityHelsinki
Period4/09/006/09/00

Fingerprint

remediation
copper
soil
weathering
leaching
sieving
mineral processing
contaminated soil
solubility
surface area
gravity
carbonate
product
particle

Cite this

Hintikka, V., Parvinen, P., Sten, P., Laukkanen, J., & Leppinen, J. (2000). Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets. In VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.) (pp. 237-244). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Symposium, No. 204
Hintikka, Väinö ; Parvinen, Pekka ; Sten, Pekka ; Laukkanen, Jukka ; Leppinen, Jaakko. / Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets. VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.). Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. pp. 237-244 (VTT Symposium; No. 204).
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title = "Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets",
abstract = "The possibilities of using mineral processing techniques to remediate rifle range soils were evaluated.The studied soils originated from two Finnish rifle ranges, Viikinm{\"a}ki and Utti, and were heavily contaminated by lead- and copper-containing bullets and their disintegrated fine-grained weathering products.Most of the lead and copper in the soil samples is in the form of coarser particles, which can be easily recovered mechanically by combining wet sieving with consecutive gravity concentration stages.In this process, 83-85{\%} of the total lead and 91-99{\%} of the total copper can be recovered into a ca. 90{\%} pure bullet product.The fine soil fraction contains 14-17{\%} of the total lead, mainly as fine-grained carbona-ceous weathering products of the bullets, and 1-3{\%} of the total copper.Due to the higher solubility of the lead carbonates and the high surface area of these particles, they form a significant source of contamination for the environment.Complex-forming leaching was used to recover the lead and copper from the fine soil fractions with recoveries of 95-98{\%}.By combining the mechanical and leaching processes, lead and copper recoveries higher than 99.4{\%} can be reached.",
author = "V{\"a}in{\"o} Hintikka and Pekka Parvinen and Pekka Sten and Jukka Laukkanen and Jaakko Leppinen",
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Hintikka, V, Parvinen, P, Sten, P, Laukkanen, J & Leppinen, J 2000, Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets. in VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Symposium, no. 204, pp. 237-244, International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology, Helsinki, Finland, 4/09/00.

Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets. / Hintikka, Väinö; Parvinen, Pekka; Sten, Pekka; Laukkanen, Jukka; Leppinen, Jaakko.

VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.). Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000. p. 237-244 (VTT Symposium; No. 204).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets

AU - Hintikka, Väinö

AU - Parvinen, Pekka

AU - Sten, Pekka

AU - Laukkanen, Jukka

AU - Leppinen, Jaakko

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - The possibilities of using mineral processing techniques to remediate rifle range soils were evaluated.The studied soils originated from two Finnish rifle ranges, Viikinmäki and Utti, and were heavily contaminated by lead- and copper-containing bullets and their disintegrated fine-grained weathering products.Most of the lead and copper in the soil samples is in the form of coarser particles, which can be easily recovered mechanically by combining wet sieving with consecutive gravity concentration stages.In this process, 83-85% of the total lead and 91-99% of the total copper can be recovered into a ca. 90% pure bullet product.The fine soil fraction contains 14-17% of the total lead, mainly as fine-grained carbona-ceous weathering products of the bullets, and 1-3% of the total copper.Due to the higher solubility of the lead carbonates and the high surface area of these particles, they form a significant source of contamination for the environment.Complex-forming leaching was used to recover the lead and copper from the fine soil fractions with recoveries of 95-98%.By combining the mechanical and leaching processes, lead and copper recoveries higher than 99.4% can be reached.

AB - The possibilities of using mineral processing techniques to remediate rifle range soils were evaluated.The studied soils originated from two Finnish rifle ranges, Viikinmäki and Utti, and were heavily contaminated by lead- and copper-containing bullets and their disintegrated fine-grained weathering products.Most of the lead and copper in the soil samples is in the form of coarser particles, which can be easily recovered mechanically by combining wet sieving with consecutive gravity concentration stages.In this process, 83-85% of the total lead and 91-99% of the total copper can be recovered into a ca. 90% pure bullet product.The fine soil fraction contains 14-17% of the total lead, mainly as fine-grained carbona-ceous weathering products of the bullets, and 1-3% of the total copper.Due to the higher solubility of the lead carbonates and the high surface area of these particles, they form a significant source of contamination for the environment.Complex-forming leaching was used to recover the lead and copper from the fine soil fractions with recoveries of 95-98%.By combining the mechanical and leaching processes, lead and copper recoveries higher than 99.4% can be reached.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 951-38-5701-8

T3 - VTT Symposium

SP - 237

EP - 244

BT - VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.)

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Hintikka V, Parvinen P, Sten P, Laukkanen J, Leppinen J. Remediation of soils contaminated by lead- and copper-containing rifle bullets. In VTT Symposium 204. International Conference on Practical Applications in Environmental Geotechnology. ECOGEO 2000. Helsinki, FI, 4 - 6 Sept. 2000. Tammirinne, Markku (ed.). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2000. p. 237-244. (VTT Symposium; No. 204).