Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium brine concentrate via continuous counter-current solvent extraction

Sami Virolainen (Corresponding Author), Mojtaba Fallah Fini, Ville Miettinen, Antero Laitinen, Mika Haapalainen, Tuomo Sainio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this research project, a process for purifying Li brine concentrate with a typical composition of Li 30 g/L, Ca 1.36 g/L, Mg 0.049 g/L via solvent extraction was studied. The goal was to remove Ca to below 20 mg/L and Mg to the ppm level while keeping the co-extraction of Li below 10%. Laboratory-scale batch experiments showed that conventional cation-exchange reagents D2EHPA and Versatic 10 could be used for the task in pH ranges of 3.5-4.0 and 6.5-8.0, respectively. Of these reagents, Versatic 10 had better selectivity for the target metals and better phase disengagement properties, while D2EHPA had a higher capacity. However, with either of these reagents, the organic phase cannot be loaded to a very high extent, because Ca, which has the highest affinity, then replaces Mg. The effect of the operating parameters (pH, temperature, phase ratio, and residence time) were studied in a bench-scale two-stage continuous counter-current setup with both reagents. The overall performance was good, yielding ppm impurity levels in terms of Ca and Mg and, typically, 3-5% Li co-extraction. While the Mg extraction could be increased by increasing the pH in the mixers and decreasing the A/O phase ratio, the Li co-extraction would also be increased. A compromise must be made between purity and Li yield. Decreasing the temperature or residence time did not have a significant effect on performance. It was demonstrated that a high throughput can be achieved because a mixer residence time of 2 min or even less can be used.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-15
JournalHydrometallurgy
Volume162
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Solvent extraction
Lithium
Magnesium
Calcium
Cations
Ion exchange
Positive ions
Metals
Throughput
Impurities
Temperature
brine
Chemical analysis
Experiments

Keywords

  • Brine
  • Calcium
  • Continuous counter-current solvent extraction
  • Lithium
  • Magnesium

Cite this

Virolainen, Sami ; Fallah Fini, Mojtaba ; Miettinen, Ville ; Laitinen, Antero ; Haapalainen, Mika ; Sainio, Tuomo. / Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium brine concentrate via continuous counter-current solvent extraction. In: Hydrometallurgy. 2016 ; Vol. 162. pp. 9-15.
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abstract = "In this research project, a process for purifying Li brine concentrate with a typical composition of Li 30 g/L, Ca 1.36 g/L, Mg 0.049 g/L via solvent extraction was studied. The goal was to remove Ca to below 20 mg/L and Mg to the ppm level while keeping the co-extraction of Li below 10{\%}. Laboratory-scale batch experiments showed that conventional cation-exchange reagents D2EHPA and Versatic 10 could be used for the task in pH ranges of 3.5-4.0 and 6.5-8.0, respectively. Of these reagents, Versatic 10 had better selectivity for the target metals and better phase disengagement properties, while D2EHPA had a higher capacity. However, with either of these reagents, the organic phase cannot be loaded to a very high extent, because Ca, which has the highest affinity, then replaces Mg. The effect of the operating parameters (pH, temperature, phase ratio, and residence time) were studied in a bench-scale two-stage continuous counter-current setup with both reagents. The overall performance was good, yielding ppm impurity levels in terms of Ca and Mg and, typically, 3-5{\%} Li co-extraction. While the Mg extraction could be increased by increasing the pH in the mixers and decreasing the A/O phase ratio, the Li co-extraction would also be increased. A compromise must be made between purity and Li yield. Decreasing the temperature or residence time did not have a significant effect on performance. It was demonstrated that a high throughput can be achieved because a mixer residence time of 2 min or even less can be used.",
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Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium brine concentrate via continuous counter-current solvent extraction. / Virolainen, Sami (Corresponding Author); Fallah Fini, Mojtaba; Miettinen, Ville; Laitinen, Antero; Haapalainen, Mika; Sainio, Tuomo.

In: Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 162, 2016, p. 9-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium brine concentrate via continuous counter-current solvent extraction

AU - Virolainen, Sami

AU - Fallah Fini, Mojtaba

AU - Miettinen, Ville

AU - Laitinen, Antero

AU - Haapalainen, Mika

AU - Sainio, Tuomo

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - In this research project, a process for purifying Li brine concentrate with a typical composition of Li 30 g/L, Ca 1.36 g/L, Mg 0.049 g/L via solvent extraction was studied. The goal was to remove Ca to below 20 mg/L and Mg to the ppm level while keeping the co-extraction of Li below 10%. Laboratory-scale batch experiments showed that conventional cation-exchange reagents D2EHPA and Versatic 10 could be used for the task in pH ranges of 3.5-4.0 and 6.5-8.0, respectively. Of these reagents, Versatic 10 had better selectivity for the target metals and better phase disengagement properties, while D2EHPA had a higher capacity. However, with either of these reagents, the organic phase cannot be loaded to a very high extent, because Ca, which has the highest affinity, then replaces Mg. The effect of the operating parameters (pH, temperature, phase ratio, and residence time) were studied in a bench-scale two-stage continuous counter-current setup with both reagents. The overall performance was good, yielding ppm impurity levels in terms of Ca and Mg and, typically, 3-5% Li co-extraction. While the Mg extraction could be increased by increasing the pH in the mixers and decreasing the A/O phase ratio, the Li co-extraction would also be increased. A compromise must be made between purity and Li yield. Decreasing the temperature or residence time did not have a significant effect on performance. It was demonstrated that a high throughput can be achieved because a mixer residence time of 2 min or even less can be used.

AB - In this research project, a process for purifying Li brine concentrate with a typical composition of Li 30 g/L, Ca 1.36 g/L, Mg 0.049 g/L via solvent extraction was studied. The goal was to remove Ca to below 20 mg/L and Mg to the ppm level while keeping the co-extraction of Li below 10%. Laboratory-scale batch experiments showed that conventional cation-exchange reagents D2EHPA and Versatic 10 could be used for the task in pH ranges of 3.5-4.0 and 6.5-8.0, respectively. Of these reagents, Versatic 10 had better selectivity for the target metals and better phase disengagement properties, while D2EHPA had a higher capacity. However, with either of these reagents, the organic phase cannot be loaded to a very high extent, because Ca, which has the highest affinity, then replaces Mg. The effect of the operating parameters (pH, temperature, phase ratio, and residence time) were studied in a bench-scale two-stage continuous counter-current setup with both reagents. The overall performance was good, yielding ppm impurity levels in terms of Ca and Mg and, typically, 3-5% Li co-extraction. While the Mg extraction could be increased by increasing the pH in the mixers and decreasing the A/O phase ratio, the Li co-extraction would also be increased. A compromise must be made between purity and Li yield. Decreasing the temperature or residence time did not have a significant effect on performance. It was demonstrated that a high throughput can be achieved because a mixer residence time of 2 min or even less can be used.

KW - Brine

KW - Calcium

KW - Continuous counter-current solvent extraction

KW - Lithium

KW - Magnesium

U2 - 10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.02.010

DO - 10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.02.010

M3 - Article

VL - 162

SP - 9

EP - 15

JO - Hydrometallurgy

JF - Hydrometallurgy

SN - 0304-386X

ER -