Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood

Ari Salmi (Corresponding Author), Lauri Salminen, Birgitta A. Engberg, Thomas Björkqvist, Edward Häggström

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The relationship between the impactor velocity and the amount of strain localization in a single impact compression of cellular solids is known. However, few studies report on the effects of repeated high frequency compression. We therefore studied the mechanical behavior of Norway spruce, a cellular viscoelastic material, before, during, and after cyclic high frequency, high strain rate, compression. A custom made device applied 5000-20 000 unipolar (constrained compression and free relaxation) fatigue cycles with a 0.75 mm peak-to-peak amplitude at 500 Hz frequency. The consequences of this treatment were quantified by pitch-catch ultrasonic measurements and by dynamic material testing using an encapsulated Split-Hopkinson device that incorporated a high-speed camera. The ultrasonic measurements quantified a stiffness modulus drop and revealed the presence of a fatigued low modulus layer near the impacting surface. Such a localized plastic deformation is not predicted by classical mechanics. We introduce a simple model that explains several changes in the mechanical properties caused by fatiguing. The high speed images indicated pronounced strain localization in the weakest (thinnest walls) parts of the earlywood layers, and revealed strain propagation as a function of time. We present a hypothesis explaining why there is a fatigued layer formed in a piece of wood that has sustained cyclic compression and free relaxation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number024901
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Dive into the research topics of 'Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this