Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood

Ari Salmi (Corresponding Author), Lauri Salminen, Birgitta A. Engberg, Thomas Björkqvist, Edward Häggström

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The relationship between the impactor velocity and the amount of strain localization in a single impact compression of cellular solids is known. However, few studies report on the effects of repeated high frequency compression. We therefore studied the mechanical behavior of Norway spruce, a cellular viscoelastic material, before, during, and after cyclic high frequency, high strain rate, compression. A custom made device applied 5000-20 000 unipolar (constrained compression and free relaxation) fatigue cycles with a 0.75 mm peak-to-peak amplitude at 500 Hz frequency. The consequences of this treatment were quantified by pitch-catch ultrasonic measurements and by dynamic material testing using an encapsulated Split-Hopkinson device that incorporated a high-speed camera. The ultrasonic measurements quantified a stiffness modulus drop and revealed the presence of a fatigued low modulus layer near the impacting surface. Such a localized plastic deformation is not predicted by classical mechanics. We introduce a simple model that explains several changes in the mechanical properties caused by fatiguing. The high speed images indicated pronounced strain localization in the weakest (thinnest walls) parts of the earlywood layers, and revealed strain propagation as a function of time. We present a hypothesis explaining why there is a fatigued layer formed in a piece of wood that has sustained cyclic compression and free relaxation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number024901
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume111
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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plastic deformation
causes
ultrasonics
thin walls
impactors
Norway
high speed cameras
classical mechanics
strain rate
stiffness
high speed
mechanical properties
cycles
propagation

Cite this

Salmi, A., Salminen, L., Engberg, B. A., Björkqvist, T., & Häggström, E. (2012). Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood. Journal of Applied Physics, 111(2), [024901]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3676206
Salmi, Ari ; Salminen, Lauri ; Engberg, Birgitta A. ; Björkqvist, Thomas ; Häggström, Edward. / Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2012 ; Vol. 111, No. 2.
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Salmi, A, Salminen, L, Engberg, BA, Björkqvist, T & Häggström, E 2012, 'Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 111, no. 2, 024901. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3676206

Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood. / Salmi, Ari (Corresponding Author); Salminen, Lauri; Engberg, Birgitta A.; Björkqvist, Thomas; Häggström, Edward.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, No. 2, 024901, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Salmi, Ari

AU - Salminen, Lauri

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AU - Björkqvist, Thomas

AU - Häggström, Edward

PY - 2012

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N2 - The relationship between the impactor velocity and the amount of strain localization in a single impact compression of cellular solids is known. However, few studies report on the effects of repeated high frequency compression. We therefore studied the mechanical behavior of Norway spruce, a cellular viscoelastic material, before, during, and after cyclic high frequency, high strain rate, compression. A custom made device applied 5000-20 000 unipolar (constrained compression and free relaxation) fatigue cycles with a 0.75 mm peak-to-peak amplitude at 500 Hz frequency. The consequences of this treatment were quantified by pitch-catch ultrasonic measurements and by dynamic material testing using an encapsulated Split-Hopkinson device that incorporated a high-speed camera. The ultrasonic measurements quantified a stiffness modulus drop and revealed the presence of a fatigued low modulus layer near the impacting surface. Such a localized plastic deformation is not predicted by classical mechanics. We introduce a simple model that explains several changes in the mechanical properties caused by fatiguing. The high speed images indicated pronounced strain localization in the weakest (thinnest walls) parts of the earlywood layers, and revealed strain propagation as a function of time. We present a hypothesis explaining why there is a fatigued layer formed in a piece of wood that has sustained cyclic compression and free relaxation.

AB - The relationship between the impactor velocity and the amount of strain localization in a single impact compression of cellular solids is known. However, few studies report on the effects of repeated high frequency compression. We therefore studied the mechanical behavior of Norway spruce, a cellular viscoelastic material, before, during, and after cyclic high frequency, high strain rate, compression. A custom made device applied 5000-20 000 unipolar (constrained compression and free relaxation) fatigue cycles with a 0.75 mm peak-to-peak amplitude at 500 Hz frequency. The consequences of this treatment were quantified by pitch-catch ultrasonic measurements and by dynamic material testing using an encapsulated Split-Hopkinson device that incorporated a high-speed camera. The ultrasonic measurements quantified a stiffness modulus drop and revealed the presence of a fatigued low modulus layer near the impacting surface. Such a localized plastic deformation is not predicted by classical mechanics. We introduce a simple model that explains several changes in the mechanical properties caused by fatiguing. The high speed images indicated pronounced strain localization in the weakest (thinnest walls) parts of the earlywood layers, and revealed strain propagation as a function of time. We present a hypothesis explaining why there is a fatigued layer formed in a piece of wood that has sustained cyclic compression and free relaxation.

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Salmi A, Salminen L, Engberg BA, Björkqvist T, Häggström E. Repetitive impact loading causes local plastic deformation in wood. Journal of Applied Physics. 2012;111(2). 024901. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3676206